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Sci Tech    H4'ed 7/13/21

Dark Energy Unmasked: Solving the Mystery of the Accelerating Universe

By       (Page 1 of 4 pages)   18 comments, In Series: Coste Cosmology
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Dark Energy Unmasked
Dark Energy Unmasked
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Today, two of the greatest mysteries remaining in cosmology, the science of the origin and development of the Universe, are called Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Dark Matter appears to be some sort of matter that only interacts with ordinary matter by gravity while Dark Energy is a theoretical repulsive force that counteracts gravity and causes the Universe to expand at an accelerating rate. This article is the first in a series and will address the issue of Dark Energy and how it can be explained as a natural outcome of Einstein's Field Equations and treating the Universe as a closed system. The treatment of this topic will be presented as a philosophical discussion in which no equations will be harmed.

Since the 1990s, Dark Energy has been the most accepted explanation for the unexpected observation that the expansion of our Universe is accelerating instead of decelerating. It had been expected that the gravitational attraction of matter, both ordinary matter and Dark Matter, would slow the expansion of the Universe - possibly with enough attractive force to cause a contraction. However, the opposite was found and no theoretical explanation has emerged to explain the observed acceleration - and as a place holder, Dark Energy was hypothesized to be a new form of repulsive energy.

However, it appears that a simple and elegant explanation is available to explain Dark Energy. The concepts underlying this explanation have been presented in numerous books and lectures on Astronomy and Quantum Mechanics with only a few insights added to "connect-the-dots". Given the evolution of the study of cosmology there are reasons why the true nature of Dark Energy has eluded numerous researchers over the last quarter century. From the author's observations, the primary reason is that the current theoretical model of the Universe, known as the Λ Cold Dark Matter Concordance Model, is incomplete because it treats the Universe as an open system at the largest scale (NOTE: ΛCDM Concordance Model where "Λ" is the "cosmological constant" that is added as an after-the-fact expansion term).

The history of science has shown the value of an accurate working model for a phenomenon, or process. Without a conceptual model of the atom, alchemists did not have an understanding of how materials interacted. Consequently, their efforts were impeded by numerous wrong assumptions and dead-ends. With the development of the Rutherford model of the atom in the early 1900's, advancements in physical chemistry were able to evolve at a rapid rate.

The Universe as a Closed System vs. an Open System

One of the questions that has been posed when asking experts about the accelerating expansion of the Universe is: "couldn't there be other universes 'out-there' that are gravitationally attracting 'our' galaxies toward them?" To which the reply can be characterized as, "nothing with sufficient gravitational attraction has been observed 'out-there'".

However, there is something 'out-there' which is inextricably linked to the Big Bang and has been overlooked since the beginning of the Big Bang hypothesis. The current ΛCDM Concordance Model views radiated energy as something that travels outside of the observable Universe and is gone forever with no effect on the remaining observable Universe. Under this precept, the Universe is treated as an open system with a large fraction of the initial energy neglected. It is easy to understand this perspective because we can only see radiation that is reflected into our sensory systems - whether biological senses or instrumentation systems. Such a limitation on observability appears to have created a literal blind spot that has impeded the development of a comprehensive model of the Universe.

Furthermore, this blind spot also originated because the initial emphasis of cosmology was on the creation and evolution of visible matter in the Universe which, according to the ΛCDM Concordance Model, is now acknowledged to account for only 5 percent of the total matter and energy. In the standard Big Bang model, the formation of matter is known as nucleosynthesis. In nucleosynthesis, the role of radiant energy - photons - was primarily viewed as an intermediary energy transfer step between particle-particle creation and particle-particle annihilation until the temperatures cooled to 1013 degrees Kelvin at which time only a sea of photons remained. By the time the temperatures dropped to 1010 degrees Kelvin, the photons had insufficient energy to create electron-positron pairs and they then vanished from the nucleosynthesis discussions.

Of course, the photons themselves did not vanish, but rather they were assumed to remain contained within a hot ionized fog of the evolving Big Bang until 379,000 years later when recombination (e.g., "time of last scattering") freed them to expand outward into a sphere of radiated energy which is the source of today's Cosmic Microwave Background.

Accounting for all the Mass, Energy, Momentum, Pressure and Tension

In general relativity mass, energy, momentum, pressure, and tension all act as sources of gravity and these tell space-time how to curve. In the formulation of general relativity these components are embodied in the physical quantity known as the energy-momentum tensor of Einstein's Field Equations. The energy contained in the departed photons emitted from the initial Big Bang and up to the present has been left out of the energy balance of our Universe. This omission is important because Einstein's Equations demand the conservation of energy in all its forms as defined by this energy-momentum tensor.

While neglecting the energy in these departed photons may have been appropriate when studying nucleosynthesis, this omission left a gap in the model that physicists used both to understand new data and to make predictions. With this gap, it was not possible to conceive of an explanation for the accelerating expansion of the Universe. To fill this gap, the role of the energy in these photons needs to be revisited.

Going Back to the Beginning

Figure 1 shows an open system framework in which radiated energy leaves the Universe and is gone forever. However, this unseen outwardly directed radiation has been traveling outward since the Big Bang.

Figure 1: The 'Open' Universe framework neglects radiated energy which travels away, unseen and unacknowledged with no further impact on the Universe it left behind.
Figure 1: The 'Open' Universe framework neglects radiated energy which travels away, unseen and unacknowledged with no further impact on the Universe it left behind.
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Licensed Professional Engineer dealing with energy issues. Active in promoting the ethics of the engineering profession.

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Dark Energy Unmasked: Solving the Mystery of the Accelerating Universe

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Wayne Coste

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In his article, "Is the Big Bang in crisis?" renown astrophysicist Dan Hooper says:

"Stubborn problems with dark matter, dark energy, and cosmic expansion have some astronomers rethinking what we know about the early universe... Is a revolution coming? ... lately, it seems the more we study the universe, the less we understand it. Despite decades of effort, the nature of dark matter remains unknown, and the problem of dark energy seems nearly intractable ... It is from this perspective that I sometimes find myself considering whether these mysteries might represent something greater than a few open and unrelated questions. Perhaps they are telling us that the earliest moments of our universe were far different from what we long imagined them to be. Perhaps these problems represent the beginning of a revolution for the science of cosmology."

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One of the biggest missing pieces to the cosmology puzzle is Dark Energy and I would like to see the GRSGM hypothesis considered by the astrophysics community. It is an elegant hypothesis that fits the observations -- and fits into existing theories.

Submitted on Tuesday, Jul 13, 2021 at 10:56:02 AM

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The second article in this series will take a look at the implications of the GRSGM hypothesis for the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The CMB has been interpreted as the stretched photon wavelengths from the photons "finally freed" during the "last scattering" or "recombination." This "last scattering" is claimed to have occured 379,000 years after the Big Bang.

Another interpretation of the CMB will be considered that, possibly, will provide an elegant explanation of that phenomeom.

Submitted on Tuesday, Jul 13, 2021 at 1:26:19 PM

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Blair Gelbond

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As I understand it, quantum theory has now placed consciousness at or near the center of the hypotheses re- how our universe works. This may well be related to the mysteries we still ponder.

Submitted on Wednesday, Jul 14, 2021 at 12:41:20 PM

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Wayne Coste

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Reply to Blair Gelbond:   New Content

Blair:

Thanks for your comment.

While quantum theory is not the topic of this article, it is an interesting issue.

But more to the point is that: Regardless of whether quantum theory needs a conscious observer to collapse a wave function by making an observation, the observations that scientists have made when testing the validity of Einstein's Field Equations, special relativity and general relativity have shown that their observations agree with the predictions of his theoretical frameworks. Regardless of how quantum theory works, it doesn't invalidate the successes of Einstein's Equations.

The central hypothesis of this article is that Einstein's Equations provide the basis for the GRSGM effect -- and it does so in an elegant manner.

Submitted on Wednesday, Jul 14, 2021 at 7:58:48 PM

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Thanks for your reply, Wayne.

Apparently, physics is moving beyond Einstein, as there is increasing evidence of faster than light travel. Also, consciousness may have something to do with dark energy and dark matter.

My understanding is that physics is in an uproar with much that is undetermined and still confusing.

Submitted on Wednesday, Jul 14, 2021 at 9:02:08 PM

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Blair:

Regarding your comment, "My understanding is that physics is in an uproar with much that is undetermined and still confusing."

There is much in physics that is confusing and I believe that the absence if an adequate explanation for Dark Energy is one of the most distracting and disrupting questions that obscures insightful investigations into the questions you are referring to. I believe the proposed GRSGM-CDM Concordance Model will help clarify the remaining (a very long list) of questions.

Thanks again for your comment.

Submitted on Wednesday, Jul 14, 2021 at 9:56:03 PM

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Hi Wayne,

My sense is that detailed explanations will require new assumptions about the nature of the universe - one might call it a paradigm shift in our assumed metaphysics. This will be especially challenging due to our assumptions being so deeply rooted.

A reasonable analogy is the belief that the sun revolved around the Earth. No doubt, this transformation required changes in emotions, cognitions, and our general sense of orientation re- what the universe was all about.

Submitted on Wednesday, Jul 14, 2021 at 10:35:31 PM

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Blair:

Thank you for your comment.

I believe that the GRSGM-CDM Concordance Model I've described in the article is one of the paradigm shifts you have alluded to.

As you know, the Dark Energy that has been described in all the writings in the last quarter century has no basis in any experimental trials. The GRSGM hypothesis fits the observations that I've seen very well.

Submitted on Wednesday, Jul 14, 2021 at 10:54:13 PM

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Wayne,

Can you summarize the GRSGM-CDM Concordance Model in laymen's terms?

On another note, leading edge physicists are now wrestling with the possibility that consciousness (at various levels) undergirds, and is the basis of our universe as a whole. This may have something to do with Dark Matter and Energy,

Submitted on Friday, Jul 16, 2021 at 11:28:19 AM

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Blair:

Thank you for your comment.

As requested, I will try to summarize the GRSGM-CDM Concordance Model into a paragraph or two later today.

In the meantime, I will need to redirect you to a paper by Sean Carroll about 'consciousness' and physics. He has spent considerable time pondering this question:

Consciousness and the Laws of Physics

Abstract

We have a much better understanding of physics than we do of consciousness. I consider ways in which intrinsically mental aspects of fundamental ontology might induce modifications of the known laws of physics, or whether they could be relevant to accounting for consciousness if no such modifications exist. I suggest that our current knowledge of physics should make us skeptical of hypothetical modifications of the known rules, and that without such modifications it's hard to imagine how intrinsically mental aspects could play a useful explanatory role. Draft version of a paper submitted to Journal of Consciousness Studies, special issue responding to Philip Goff's Galileo's Error: Foundations for a New Science of Consciousness.

Submitted on Friday, Jul 16, 2021 at 3:51:06 PM

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Thank you, Wayne.

Although I am interested in the leading edge of psychic, my primary focus is ontology.

And meditation.

I will review the paper you sent.

Submitted on Friday, Jul 16, 2021 at 4:15:52 PM

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How can anyone believe that some things in the universe do not happen unless observed by humans?

Submitted on Monday, Jul 26, 2021 at 6:22:20 PM

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At the quantum level this has proven to be true in a very convincing way. At least physicists think so. We need to get used to reworking our conclusions and replacing our assumptions with what is being discovered at the cutting edge of physics.

Submitted on Monday, Jul 26, 2021 at 9:11:43 PM

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Anton,

What I sense and physics is slowly considering is that the missing ingredient in their formulations has been consciousness. The idea is that the universe, at the deepest level, has a texture - and that texture is consciousness.

Newton was a genius and yet now we are moving beyond him, which is to say "transcending and including" his work. A reasonable introduction to this new world is the Tao of Physics by Fritjof Capra.

Submitted on Tuesday, Jul 27, 2021 at 12:34:55 AM

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Wayne Coste

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Anton:

I believe that Mr. Gelblond has responded to your comment with a reasonable reply.

However, to provide a clearer example, I will point out the curious account of the Young's double slit experiment. I included a reference to this in my second article in this series,
Dark Energy Unmasked: Re-framing the Cosmic Microwave Background

The quantum mechanics effects illustrated in Young's double slit experiment showed that light did not only behave as a particle, it could also behave as a wave. When behaving as a wave, many of the photons directed through the slits were seen to impact the detector in a manner suggestive of a wave interference pattern. However, when single photons were sent through the slits -- and observed individually they behaved as single identifiable particles. It was assumed that an observer was needed to be present to "collapse the wave function" into an observation.

Unfortunately, I am not able to provide much more insights into this question, but I will refer you to the following famous paradox: Schrödinger's cat.

Submitted on Monday, Jul 26, 2021 at 11:03:46 PM

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Has the double slit experiment been done with the slit as close to absolute zero as possible to eliminate the effects of the motion of the atoms which form the slit from causing the wave like display?

Submitted on Saturday, Jul 31, 2021 at 6:13:44 PM

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In the last week since this article has been published, I had expected unrelenting criticism where the commenter would have identified some significant issue that was overlooked.

However, no criticisms have been forthcoming from the over 1,000 views in its initial week.

I must assume that there are no serious objections to this hypothesis.

Submitted on Wednesday, Jul 21, 2021 at 10:48:17 PM

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I have posted my second article in this series. Please see:
Dark Energy Unmasked: Re-framing the Cosmic Microwave Background

Submitted on Monday, Jul 26, 2021 at 11:05:05 PM

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