In Cambridge England, in 1928, John Cockcroft and E.T.S Walton began work in trying to split the atom. Eventually they broke apart an atom, and the resulting fragments that flew away, with great energy, had slightly less mass in total than the original atom. What they had just observed was the conversion of mass into pure energy, as predicted by Einstein's famous mass energy equation. In 1951, Cockcroft, along with Walton, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work in the use of accelerated particles to study the atomic nucleus.
In 2005, a team of scientists put Einstein's theory to the test, and measured the tiny change in mass of radioactive atoms before and after the atoms emitted gamma rays. Then, they measured the energy emitted by the rays. The missing mass times the velocity of light squared equaled the energy of the rays to within four hundred-thousandths of one percent. Einstein's equation, energy equals the mass times the velocity of light squared, is supported most eloquently by experimental methods. Einstein's mass energy equation, E = MC2, is one of the most elegant scientific theories of the last two centuries.
Just as Einstein's mass energy equation, and his theory of how atoms behave in our universe, is a fundamental law, the theory of evolution just received a well-needed boost by biologists at the University of California at riverside. These biologists report new evidence for evolutionary change recorded in both the fossil record and the genomes (genetic blueprints) of living organisms, providing fresh support for Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.1
Extinct Baleen whales, approximately 25 million years ago, possessed teeth with enamel. The fossil record supports whales with teeth that contain, or are coated with enamel. Using the theory of evolution, whales without enamel must therefore have descended from whales with enamel-coated teeth. Living Baleen whales lack teeth and feed on minute organisms with their brush-like baleen filters. Despite the absence of teeth, modern baleen whales retain copies of tooth-specific genes, such as enamelin, in their genomes. These unnecessary genes, which were inherited from toothed ancestors, show evidence of mutational decay, as predicted by evolutionary theory.2
Mark Springer, a professor of biology, who led the study, said, "We predicted that enamel-specific genes such as enamelin would show evidence in living organisms of molecular decay because these genes are vestigial and are no longer necessary for survival." Darwin argued that all organisms are descended from one, or a few organisms, and that natural selection drives evolutionary change. Edward O. Wilson, in his book, The Diversity of Life, states that individuals and their immediate descendants do not evolve. Populations evolve, in the sense that the proportions of carriers of different genes change through time.3
The fundamental construct on planet Earth is random genetic change sorted out by natural selection (the survival of the fittest). It is important to note that random genetic change lives in environmental autonomy -- it does not need an outside source or help of any kind to function properly. When a geographical area in a tropical forest is destroyed in a hurricane, nature will rush in with opportunistic species all obeying the law of natural selection. New species will emerge, based on mutations, and the fittest will survive. Life on Earth obeys a basic set of established biological principles. All living organisms and life processes are obedient to the laws of physics and chemistry, and all living organisms evolved by natural selection.