Jet-fuel fires are typically brief, and 9/11 photographs and video footage reveal that significant amounts of that fuel burned outside the buildings. But inside the buildings, the same visual evidence exhibits the characteristic of an oxygen-starved blaze; black smoke indicates an oxygen-deprived fire.
In addition, Newton’s Law of Conservation of Momentum——collapsing floors meeting the resistance of 100,000 tons in remaining floors——would have decreased the rate of descent significantly.
If “pancaking” had occurred, Newton’s Law application would mean that the Towers’ 110 floors would have had to collapse within one minute and fifty seconds. (No. 1: 11 seconds; No. 2: 9 seconds; both at nearly free-fall speed.)
Contrary to theories that floor collapses created compressed air responsible for plumes and squibs, this theory contends that compression lacked the force to propel 50-ton columns and 20-ton beams 300-400 feet to be embedded in nearby buildings.
Photographic evidence of interior damage at the neighboring Deutsche Bank building’s 15th floor reveals that beams and columns flung from the South Tower had an upward, not lateral, trajectory that opened a 20-floor gash; that trajectory suggests the beams and columns had been ejected from the South Tower’s basement or lower floors. The same explanation may account for exterior damage to Building 7 from the North Tower.
With regard to claims that continuous batteries furnished heat for the reportedly long-lasting molten stage of metal, none was found under Buildings 3, 4, 5, and 6 which also relied on that emergency power source. By contrast, both molten metal as well as dust clouds are recognized as byproducts of explosives. Though heavily damaged from fire and debris, none of those four structures dissolved into dust.
(9) That the collapses were caused by high-yield explosives such as thermate.
This theory is based on first-responder and survivors’ statements about hearing and feeling a series of major explosions from the Towers’ upper floors to its sub-basements, a characteristic of controlled demolitions.
A witness from the North Tower basement——William Rodriquez——has testified that explosions at his level sounded like bombs. He also saw a crumpled 300-pound metal door and a sub-basement survivor whose upper-body skin hung in shreds.
Observers outside the Towers have furnished many accounts of seeing flashes of light, squibs, and fire circling certain floors on the top half of the buildings prior to collapse.
The theory of a physicist specializing in the collapses, Steven E. Jones, Ph.D., has been that the only explosive capable of causing the collapses is a thermate compound, a high-yield agent commonly used in controlled demolitions which is also employed to cut through iron and steel alloys. Thermate is used because of its 4,500ºF to 6,000ºF range because it easily slices and/or melts steel.
Jones’ additional evidence offered to indicate the presence of thermate or similar high-yield explosives includes: a) photographs and many witnesses attesting to molten metal pouring down Tower exteriors; b) pools of molten metal burning under sites No. 1 and No. 7’s weeks after September 11; c) iron microspheres and other elements he discovered by chemical analysis of steel fragments and ground-dust samples, key components such as sulfur, of thermate.
These conclusions are supported by 300 structural engineers, architects, and scientists, as well as demolition experts. Add to that, 188 depositions about explosions from first responders, street-level witnesses, and Tower tenants.
Some scientists, such as William R. Deagle, Ph.D., another WTC investigator, are now suggesting that even more powerful explosive devices than thermate were used because of the volcanic-like kinetic energy displayed above the Towers before collapse and because of their free-fall speed.
Other signs of high-yield explosives he has cited were the mid-air pulverization and vaporization of concrete with outward-arching plumes reminiscent of volcanic energy. Deagle notes that this phenomenon was accompanied by rapid expansion and pyroclastic flow of significant dust clouds and the “squibs” caught by hundreds of photographers and videographers 40 floors below the aircrafts’ impact zones.
One inconsistency photographed at street level was that squibs from the Towers progressed downward. But at No. 7, they progressed upward. Those patterns, he says, suggests faulty explosive devices thus, contradicting the theory that the squibs were evidence of compressed air ejected horizontally from the collapsing upper floors.