Just recently, Toscano and Cowing have been doing research under water, since the environment provides some useful similarities to working in space. They developed, using off the shelf technology, a wearable outfit that records multiple physiological measurements simultaneously. The technology is ultra miniaturized, using a standard FlexComp Infiniti(tm) physiological encoder, storing the data using flash memory cards. The astronauts, Commander Dave William, a Canadian Physician, and Ron Garin, an American, wore the "gear" throughout the day while living in an NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) undersea habitat, off the shore of Key Largo Florida, 65 feet down, below the surface.
Toscano explained, "We're using that (the Nemo nine) environment as an analog of a space station. It's a good one. NASA occasionally gets an opportunity to send astronauts down there. Other ideal environments would be south pole studies, people going on long term expeditions which would be akin to long term for space."
New, microminiaturization technologies have enabled the NASA researchers to use commercially produced biomedical devices like the FlexComp Infiniti(tm)to do what used to take a wall full of equipment easily weighing over 1000 pounds. Now, the device, manufactured by Thought Technology a company that is the world's largest provider of medical and consumer biofeedback instrumentation, weighs less than a pound and has built-in data storage using flash memory cards.
Dr. Toscano reported that there were many simultaneous studies going on, including telemedicine, team decision-making, telerobotics, human performance studies, sleep studies looking at sleep wake cycles. He described, "We're looking at stress reactions, so we have basically the timeline of the crew and what they were doing throughout a mission day. We'll also have video and audio information so we can correlate the physiology with what is going on and we've also collected data on them before they went down, so we have normal work environment data.
The scientists, in the necessary tradition of many NASA missions, were not there to operate the equipment. "We had the equipment and shipped it down there, trained them how to use it and off they went. This was worn by astronauts for an eight hour day. We had a training manual, showed them procedures, how to put it on. We had a special suit designed to restrain all the cabling. The cable harness, looked like an undershirt with all the cables," described Toscano. "The data was stored on flash memory cards, they (the astronauts) would change it out each day they recorded. They would swap out the batteries, put on new electrodes, as needed. They took them off during dives," he explained, since they didn't want to deal with sealing the gear, although, Thought Technology DOES provide special equipment specifically designed for use in water by swimmers and rehabilitation therapists working with patients in water.
Toscano commented on the extreme research environment, on the air pressure "at 65 feet is about 2.65 (atmospheres) -- different from at the surface. There were questions of whether the instrument would function, would it work. And it did.
Overall, Toscano reports that they were very pleased with the research project and look forward to further work with the technology. In the past, he and his research partner, Patricia Cowing have developed and patented a biofeedback aided technique for helping astronauts cope with Zero Gravity illness. The process was tested by training astronauts BEFORE they went on a space shuttle mission. This was a case of taking research and turning it into something practical, that worked. Zero Gravity illness in outer space can be very debilitating.
Personally, I could use it for my coastal fishing trips for Bluefish off the New Jersey shore. I'm going to talk to them about giving it a try.
Thought Technology also produces the GSR2, the world's best selling hand held electronic (computerizable) consumer Biofeedback device.