The Psychopharmaceutical Industrial Complex
For the past two decades, the Psychopharmaceutical Industrial Complex has been the driving force behind the epidemic of mental illness in the United States with the promotion of biological psychiatry and a bogus "chemical imbalance" in the brain theory.
The Psychopharmaceutical Industrial Complex (PPIC) is a symbiotic system composed of the American Psychiatric Association, the pharmaceutical industry, public relations and advertising firms, patient support organizations, the National Institute of Mental Health, managed care organizations, and the flow of resources and money among these groups, according to an October 1, 2009 paper in the Journal of Mental Health Counseling, by Dr Thomas Murray, director of Counseling and Disability Services at the University of North Caroline School of Art.
Murray's paper draws parallels between cult indoctrination and PPIC techniques and notes the similarities between cult members and mental health consumers who are vulnerable to losing their identities to the PPIC.
The PPIC and "its adherence to the disease model pervades mainstream culture and greatly impacts psychotherapy," he says. "Consequently, the effects of the PPIC may have resulted in some psychiatric consumers adopting disease-model messages in ways similar to cult indoctrination."
"Consumer adoption of the disease model can create obstacles to treatment when hope is fundamental," he advises.
Murray says his most difficult cases "involve clients who have in essence been drawn into the PPIC and have become resigned to the disease model with little sense of empowerment to overcome their emotional problems."
"These are the consumers who have little self-efficacy and little hope that they have options other than to suffer," he reports.
"Insurance companies rely on pharmaceuticals to contain costs (and limit psychotherapy sessions), and reimbursement depends on a diagnosis of a diseased brain," Murray notes.
For psychiatrists, insurance "companies typically encourage short medication visits by paying nearly as much for a 20-minute medication visit as for 50 minutes of therapy," according to the April 19, 2010, New York Times article, "Mind Over Meds," by Dr Daniel Carlat, author of the Carlat Psychiatry Blog, and the new book, "Unhinged: the Trouble With Psychiatry."
Psychiatrists have become enthralled with diagnosis and medication and have given up the essence of their profession - "understanding the mind," Carlat reports in his book.
"We have become obsessed with psychopharmacology and its endless process of tinkering with medications, adjusting dosages, and piling on more medications to treat the side effects of the drugs we started with," he says. "We have convinced ourselves that we have developed cures for mental illnesses ... when in fact we know so little about the underlying neurobiology of their causes that our treatments are often a series of trials and errors."
Back in December 2003, a study in Psychiatric Services on "financial disincentives" for psychotherapy noted that psychiatrists could earn about $263 an hour doing three 15-minute "medication management" sessions, verses about $156 for a 45 to 50-minute therapy session, representing a pay cut of close to 41% per hour for doing therapy only.
The most common excuse given for the high rate of prescribing psychiatric drugs is that talk, behavioral, cognitive or other forms of non-drug treatment cost too much. However, in 2008, more than $24 billion worth of antidepressants and antipsychotics were dispensed. "Such expenditure would employ 240,000 psychotherapists earning an annual income of $100,000 to provide 6 million hours of psychotherapy averaging 25 client-hours a week," Murray estimates.
These figures do not include what would be possible using the additional revenue generated by the sales of antianxiety, hypnotic, and psychostimulant drugs, he says.
Drug Makers Pay Prescribing Shrinks Top Dollar