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Psychological, Emotional, and Moral Injuries of War

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2. See among others, Peter Marin's Living in Moral Pain, "Psychology Today," November 1981; Robert Jay Lifton's, Home From the War, Basic Books, 1973; and my The Moral Casualties of War: Understanding the Experience, "International Journal Of Applied Philosophy," vol 13:1, Spring 1999.

3. Henceforth I will refer to all who have been members of the military as "veterans" whether they have already been discharged or remain on active duty.

4. I will use the generic term "soldier" to refer to all members of the military regardless of branch of service or gender.

5. Beyond PTSD: The Moral Casualties of War, pp. 23-31.

6. The intent of all combat action is to neutralize the enemies' ability to wage war. The primary means of accomplishing this end in war fighting is by creating enemy casualties, i.e., by rendering the enemy incapable of continuing the hostilities. As was illustrated during the endless artillery bombardment experienced by soldiers fighting in the trenches of the Western Front during World War I, this includes not only killing and physically injuring enemy combatants, but psychologically and emotionally incapacitating them as well (then termed "shell shock").

7. Ibid, pp. 150-167.

8. See my book, Worthy of Gratitude: Why Veterans May Not Want To Be Thanked For Their Service in War, Gnosis Press, New York, 2015.

9. Beyond PTSD: The Moral Casualties of War, pp. 96-101.

10. Ibid, pp.103-113.

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Camillo "Mac" Bica, Ph.D., is a professor of philosophy at the School of Visual Arts in New York City, a long-time activist for peace and justice, a member of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War, and the coordinator of the Long Island Chapter of Veterans for Peace. His books include "Beyond PTSD: The Moral (more...)
 

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