Prepare to be shocked! The public high school closures --Arne Duncan's Renaissance 2010\. plan that closed public schools and opened charter schools, led to an explosion of gun violence. 'The research literature has documented that in Chicago, the subsequent expansion of 'school choice' has been undermining public schools, which have previously been central institutions binding communities together. It became a serious problem, as young African-American males were reluctant to leave their communities, going to new schools throughout the city. So, from the early 2000s, too many young Afrcan-American males haven’t been going to school, exacerbating income equality. Nothing good came of Duncan's 'Reform! “When schools closed, it severed the longstanding social connections that families and staff had with their schools and with one another.'