I will not answer the question, but I think it needs to be studied, especially considering that at most conservative estimates the Muslims represent 21% of the world population http://www.adherents.com/religions_by_adherents.html, some information about Islam as a religion can be found here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/islam.
Now, to attempt to answer the loaded question on hand, Can a good Muslim be a good American? We have to address the three distinctive parts of the question:
1- What is a good Muslim?
2- What is a good American?
3- The specific statements about Islam as a religion (12 points)
What is a good Muslim?
I quote from the Holy Quran: "It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards East or West; but it is righteousness to believe in God and the Last Day and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask; and for the freeing of captives; to be steadfast in prayers, and practice regular charity; to fulfill the contracts which you made; and to be firm and patient in pain (or suffering) and adversity and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the God-conscious." (2:177)
What is a good American?
A good American is a person that abides by the law, loves his family, works hard, volunteers in his community and defends his country. Defending your country sometimes means disagreeing with its policies which is guaranteed by our constitution. The polls suggest that over 70% of the population think that the country is heading in the wrong direction. Does this mean 70% of the population is bad Americans?
The first amendment guarantee these rights http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/first_amendment_to_the_united_states_constitution
The specific statements about Islam as a religion (12 points)
Can a good Muslim be a good American?
I sent that question to a friend who worked in Saudi Arabia for 20 years.
As a matter of fact, the Arabic literal translation for Almighty God, "Allaah", is quite similar to the word for God in other Semitic languages - for example, the Hebrew word for God is "Elah". The moon god of Arabia, I'm not even sure what this means!
Religiously - no. Because no other religion is accepted by his Allah except Islam (Quran, 2:256)
All religions believe that it is the righteous religion, if you are a Christian then you have to accept Jesus as your savior or risk being thrown in hell fire at the day of judgment. Islam is no different. On the other hand Muslims are instructed to believe in all religions that proceeded Islam including Judaism and Christianity. Islam also in the same verse mentioned by the writer states clearly that "There is no compulsion in religion". For more detailed explanation of the verse and discussions on the text please see:
Scripturally - no. Because his allegiance is to the five pillars of Islam and the Quran (Koran).
The five pillars of Islam are the logistics of becoming a Muslim; it has nothing to do with allegiance. This is the equivalent of having no allegiance to America because you accepted Jesus as savior or because you believe in the "Ten Commandments". Information on the 5 pillars of Islam can be found in this web site:
Geographically - no. Because his allegiance is to Mecca, to which he turns in prayer five times a day.
Mecca is the most holy place for Muslims. To help you understand, it is the Vatican for Catholics. Are Catholics geographically not good Americans?
Socially - no. Because his allegiance to Islam forbids him to make friends with Christians or Jews.
The Qur'an says, "Not all of them are alike: of the People of the Book (Christians and Jews) are a portion that stand (for the right): They rehearse the Signs of God all night long, and they prostrate themselves in adoration. They believe in God and the Last Day; they enjoin what is right, and forbid what is wrong; and they hasten (in emulation) in (all) good works: They are in the ranks of the righteous. Of the good that they do, nothing will be rejected of them; for God knows well those that do right." (Quran, 3:113 115)
Politically - no. Because he must submit to the mullah (spiritual leaders), who teach annihilation of Israel and Destruction of America, the great Satan.
Islam is the only religion that doesn't recognize a hierarchy and there is no medium between any Muslim and their god. The Mullah mentioned here is a title for a scholar in the Afghan language so it is not even Arabic. The following verses of Quran outline the relation between people.
"O believers, be you securers of justice, witness for God. Let not detestation for a people move you not to be equitable; be equitable - that is nearer to God-fearing." (5:8)
"...Whoso slays a soul not to retaliate for a soul slain, nor for corruption done in the land, should be as if he had slain mankind altogether." (5:32)
"One who kills a man under covenant (i.e., dhimmi) will not even smell the fragrance of Paradise."
"You who believe, do not let one (set of) people make fun of another set." (49:11-12)
"Do not defame one another." (49:11-12)
"Do not backbite or speak ill of one another." (49:11-12)
"Do not spy on one another." (49:12)
"Do not enter any houses unless you are sure of their occupant's consent." (24:27)
Domestically - no. Because he is instructed to marry four women and beat and scourge his wife when she disobeys him (Quran 4:34).
Islamic countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia (the most populace Islamic country), had women premiers and presidents since the late sixties. The Quran never instructed men to marry four, to the contrary the number four in Islam was the beginning of restricting multiple marriages. Multiple marriages with no limits were acceptable practice previous to Islam, and many prophets had multiple wives, Abraham and Isaac are just two examples. Also Islam puts very restrictive rules on multiple marriages, rules that would guarantee the women and the children full rights, including the right of the woman to divorce her husband.
Regarding the treatment of women in Quran:
"O ye who believe! Ye are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should ye treat them with harshness, that ye may take away part of the dower ye have given them,-except where they have been guilty of open lewdness; on the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity. If ye take a dislike to them it may be that ye dislike a thing, and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good. (Quran 4:19). More examples of verses can be found at: http://www.islamfortoday.com/womens_rights_references.htm
Another misguided conception in many ways, although all founding fathers were Christians, religion makes only one direct and obvious appearance in the original Constitution that seems to point to a desire for some degree of religious freedom. That appearance is in Article 6, at the end of the third clause. So, it is obvious that the constitution is based on the same universal principals which all religions are based on not only Christianity. Also, the constitution is dear especially to minorities such as Muslim Americans since it guarantees their rights as well as others. http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_reli.html#original
Philosophically - no. Because Islam, Muhammad, and the Quran do not allow freedom of religion and expression. Democracy and Islam cannot co-exist.
Quran summed up the concept of Democracy in the following verse "Whose affairs are a matter of consultation" (42:38) http://www.islamonline.com/cgi-bin/news_service/spot_full_story.asp?service_id=781
Islam also guarantee freedom of religion and expression