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Security Sector Reform in Nepal:With reference to UNSCR 1325

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1. Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325, on women, peace and security was passed unanimously on 31 October 2000. Resolution (S/RES/1325) is the first resolution ever passed by the Security Council that specifically addresses the impact of war on women, and women's contributions to conflict resolution and sustainable peace. The important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peace building, and stressing on the importance of their equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security in domestic as well as in international arena. Accordingly, 1325 is a one of the most important international roadmap that compel its all member state to consider UNSCR 1325 as guiding principle while working on security sector reform.

2. This resolution is mandatory that compels to UN as well to its all member-state to adopt essential women sensitivity approaches in entire dealings with ongoing/ post conflict or transition or peace process phases. The status of serious exclusion and ignorance of Nepalese women in pre- peace process to post conflict situation and from past security apparatus to reformed present structure of security mechanism. It illustrates pathetic ground reality. However, recently some policies efforts have been introduced in favor of 1325, but it is yet to materialize properly in meaningful and productive ways.

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3. The general concept of Security Sector Reform is essentially aimed at the efficient and effective provision of state and human security within a framework of democratic governance in accordance with the will and interest of the nation. It is a continuous process but the importance of SSR may talk differently in different situation. Particularly, the SSR issues comes as a one of the most preferred agenda in post conflict situation while shifting security governance from transition towards sustainable peace. SSR also considers as a democratization process which includes transformation of institutional values, culture, and structure in accordance with contemporary needs and standard. It helps to strengthen the institutional effectiveness and forces to stepping towards better governance and develop effective mechanism to reach near the people with impression of people centric agent. It secures inclusive representation, and build favorable environment for social justice, create harmony and promote rule of law in favor of people and national interest. It focuses on the inner and outer justice, civic engagement, and works to correct impunity by using necessary reconciliation approaches. The SSR may establish the "culture of respect" towards legitimated rights of the people, specially for excluded, women and marginalized groups. It talks about the rational inclusion and meaningful participation not only the state's forces, but also non-state actors, armed groups as well as the civil society and marginalized group too. The ultimate goal of the SSR to optimizing, reengineering, and restructuring of the security sector, mostly to make it more effective and efficient in the sense of its orientation towards the citizens. The rationale SSR helps to assure peoples' ownership over the security system. It may helpful to create sustainable peace, mutual trust, harmony and professional coalition with government, people, and security personnel for security related better productivity.

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4. What is the existing position of 1325? In Nepal, most of the women and children are the victims of war and struggling for survival. They and their problems are not being handled as per the letter and spirit of UNSCR 1325. Sadly, women are excluded in peace process, women and children are ignored in post conflict concentration, excessive exclusion exists in security structure, endangered and ignored situation of conflict affected women and children are found in terrible situation and being away from the mainstreaming of post conflict affairs, poor institutionalization of women and children related qualitative and quantitative statistics, and crisis and confusion of accountability towards 1325. There are no particular or integrated authorities who are responsible to enforce 1325 properly, so the responsibility shifting problem exists in practice. Honestly writing 1325 is just limited in indoor academic discussion inside the NGOs-INGOs, except very nominal presence among governmental agencies.

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Mr. Pushkar was a DAAD fellow and studied research master in peace and conflict studies in Germany. Also, he holds an internationally honored first class master degree in public administration. He has participated in dozens of national and (more...)
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