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By Kevin Stoda, Wiesbaden, Germany

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The late Bernt Engelmann, the author of DU DEUTSCH?, subtitled the "History of Foreigners in German y", makes a very strong case that from the time warring Prussia took over most of what became known as Germany in 1870, there were living in the geographic borders of Germany already a very large number of foreigners. Moreover, Engelmann notes that from the turn of the 20th century census statisticians were fudging the count of foreigners so that these large "foreign" populations within the German Empires' borders, from Kalingrad to Strassbourg were vastly under-counted.

This is something which Germans, especially German civil servants, who abuse foreigners with their rules and arbitrary actions should come to understand about real German history. After all, as part of the current citizenship process, German-citizen-wannabes are required to study German history.

Engelmann began the second chapter of his history with the question "Who are foreigners?" with a quote from Kurt Tucholsky. Tucholsky had stated in the early 20th Century, "Only once in Europe is man a citizen. The other twenty times is he a foreigner [wherever he goes]. . . . Who knows? Maybe that is true 32 times that. This happens when one writes down German Reich as one's address." This was because even within the new Germany, people from one part of the Reich were seen by many other Germans as coming from a foreign place, such as Detmold an der Lippe or East Prussia or the Palatinate or Bavaria--rather than being a local citizen. In many cases, only if the address on the passport-used was clearly of the entire German Reich would local civil servants refer to the person in question specifically as a German national. This is because over many centuries, the local government's civil servants have historically had great powers to define rights of a resident according to German federal development.

In short, 19th Century Europe, was a patchwork of states, nations, and peoples looking for a land to call German Patria. Before this was the Roman empire and then there was the German bund. In the German bund there existed up through mid-century into at least 30 different autonomous states in a very loose confederal system. Other countries, like the Austrian Habsburg Empire, were also made up of 30 different peoples and nationalities, but they did not consider themselves a bund. They were an Empire of various Slavik, Hungarian, German, Romanian, Bulgarian and Albanian groups. It was only through nationalist movements and wars of aggression that a few political leaders were able to begin to further tidy up some of the borders and the checkerboard of countries making up the maps of central and southwestern Europe starting just before 1860.

This is why Engelmann warns students of history that the 1900 census in Germany was largely a fictitious affair as far as the list of foreigners living within the borders of the Kaiser's Empire was concerned. Officially, according to the census figures, there were 56 million people living within German borders in 1900. Of these, only 780,000 were specifically listed as foreigners. On the face of it, it appeared that only 1.4 % of the population of the German Reich were foreigners at the turn of the 20th Century.

"Not really true, " explained Engelmann, who survived concentration camps in Germany in the 1940s as Nazi-led Germany fought wars for its popular "Germany for Germans" myths. Engelmann wrote, "Many millions of foreigners by today's standards were called national in that census, simply because they had always lived in German borders and for a few years within the Reich's borders."

For example, Englemann noted, "No Polish were counted because they didn't have a country at the time. . . . The Polish Party of Germany was even represented in parliament with 14 representatives as of 1903. " The same could be said of dozens of other peoples and nationalities within both the German and Austrian Reichs. (Many Austrians moved to Germany looking for work as the Industrial Revolution took off in the 19th century, but as they learned to speak some German by 1900 or spoke it already and because Germany had its eye on-and-off Austria as a potential Anschluss-partner, almost none of the German speaking one-time Austrian Empire residents were counted as foreigners either.) In short, Engelmann reports, when one includes all the various language and national groups and cultures busily employed in Germany as of 1900, there were over 3.6 million foreigners, who were often mislabeled "Inlanders" by the German Census bureau.

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There were among the many "Inlanders" Lithuanians, Sorbs, Czeks, Slowaks, Walloons, Russians, Ukranians--and in many cases Russians or Byelorussians--included in that some of 3.6 Million. Now, simply add 3.6 million and 780,000 (Italians, French, Dutch, Danish, Americans, Brits, and others who were in the foreigner statistics) and you have a sum of nearly 4.4 million foreigners in Germany as of 1900. That means at the very least there were 7.8 percent foreigners living and working in Germany officially or full-time as of 1900.

Later, in Engelmann's German history book we discover that there were likely well over one or two million migratory workers and uncounted workers--mostly from Eastern Europe-- in German censuses under the Kaiser. This was because the great farms of the Junkers and other East Prussians were farmed only by laborers from abroad who often officially were not permitted to stay after harvest "inland". However, there was often need even in winter for many of these to stay and be housed on German soil. This pushes the population of foreigners in the German Kaiser Reich to well over 10% of the population.

In short, just like Germany in 1900, Germany in 2000 through 2009 has been a nation of many nationalities and immigrants. The difference is that the census figures are more exact today.

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KEVIN STODA-has been blessed to have either traveled in or worked in nearly 100 countries on five continents over the past two and a half decades.--He sees himself as a peace educator and have been-- a promoter of good economic and social development--making-him an enemy of my homelands humongous DEFENSE SPENDING and its focus on using weapons to try and solve global (more...)

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