Second, McCutcheon further shows that the switch to General Relativity is a fatally flawed solution to this issue. One of the cornerstones of General Relativity is the Principle of Equivalence, which states that the 1g-force effect of gravity on Earth is entirely equivalent to being accelerated through space at the same 1g rate - no experiment should be able to discern any difference. This means that even though this acceleration would produce near-light speeds within months, there should still be no physical difference between this scenario and that of standing on Earth the whole while.
So, according to both the "everything is relative" aspect of Special Relativity and the Principle of Equivalence in General Relativity, it appears there is no such thing as a "Twin Paradox" time dilation effect, despite widespread repetition of theoretical and experimental claims to the contrary. Not only does this seriously question Special Relativity, but doubly so for General Relativity considering the earlier drop-test issue as well. And notably, Expansion Theory differs with both the drop-test prediction of General Relativity and Newtonian gravity and the time dilation claim of Special and General Relativity.
One of the milestones in our science is also one of the most celebrated successes of Newton's gravitational-force theory -its extension of surface gravity to a further "action-at-a-distance" quality that Newton claimed reaches out into space, holding the Moon in orbit. But this proposal not only still has no solid physical explanation for how it might operate - 300 years later, but also offers no explanation for the immense and endless power source that must exist to support such a powerful undiminishing force. We have developed conceptual abstractions to address this issue in the absence of solid physical explanations, but this has left us with an array of working theories of gravity today and ongoing speculation over possible "graviton particles" or "gravity waves". And, to the extent that Einstein has aligned his theory with Newton, it also suffers the same difficulties, while the extent to which it deviates often leaves it suffering from impractical abstraction or mathematical intractability.
In contrast, Expansion Theory describes orbits at a distance as a simple geometric consequence of the same singular expanding matter phenomenon responsible for surface gravity. It is easy to see, for example, how dropped objects would effectively fall due to planetary expansion, and also how even horizontally tossed objects would curve and plummet increasingly toward the ground. Such a dramatic momentum change solely due to the geometry of expansion establishes the concept for this plummeting trajectory to become continually less dramatic the greater the horizontal speed, eventually matching the Earth's curvature, which, by definition, repeats just the same each moment - no longer plummeting but circling the planet.
Likewise, this new concept of expanding matter can also explain observations throughout our solar system - planetary orbits, ocean tides and interplanetary space travel, to name a few. Study the left side of this image of two planets traveling in theoretical straight lines past each other while the gap between them closes due to their expansion. We would never actually see such expansion directly as a size change if we and all other objects expand equally, maintaining constant (relative) sizes, so the closing gap between the objects in the diagram could only manifest as effective curves toward each other while passing, as shown on the right. This is what McCutcheon calls the "Natural Orbit Effect", where curves and orbits are unavoidable natural trajectories that follow from the pure geometry of expanding matter. In this view, Newton's absolute straight-line momentum claim for all objects in the universe is a fallacy, and not a law of nature, since it is actually never followed in nature upon closer examination; even objects rolling in a straight line along the ground are actually rolling around the planet.
Interestingly, another test of Expansion Theory, in addition to the earlier-mentioned drop test, could be performed by weighing an object directly on the surface of the far side of the Moon. Since the Moon is about a quarter the size of Earth, its expansion-based surface gravity would be one quarter as well, which, McCutcheon shows, is also calculated by Newton's mass-based gravitational equations before revising lunar mass assumptions to match actual surface measurements from our space programs. And while the actual one-sixth surface gravity - only directly measured on the near side and presumed to extend around the lunar surface - is currently explained by assuming the Moon is composed of less dense material throughout, McCutcheon's theory suggests a somewhat different explanation.
Expansion Theory suggests a varying density, from most dense on the near side to least dense on the far side, which is also in keeping with one of the commonly proposed lunar creation scenarios. In this case, since the outward expansion of objects would proceed from their center of mass, there would be less expansion force on the near side and more on the far side, as shown in the diagram at left. This suggests that the far-side surface gravity must be double the near side in order to average to the one-quarter gravity suggested by the Moon's size. McCutcheon shows that this would not affect either the spherical shape of the Moon or the orbit of any circling satellites, and could only be determined by direct surface contact. The detailed description in the book of the results of differing internal expansion points and force-free gravitational effects at a distance present an entirely new understanding that could revolutionize large-scale engineering projects, such as elevators rather than rockets for reaching orbit.
The book further suggests that ocean tides need not, and cannot, arise from a lunar influence, but only from the inner dynamics of the Earth itself - an inner wobble that must be present even according to today's classical physics, based on the center-of-mass dynamics of the Earth-Moon system. The analysis justifies why the passing Moon coincides with rising tides, roughly speaking, but for internal reasons that follow from the creation and evolution of the Earth-Moon system.
In Expansion Theory the dynamics of orbiting, expanding moons and planets result in the entire solar system and all of its contained orbits expanding as well. This is shown to explain the slingshot effect that accelerates spaceships as they pass planets - and where there are no known g-forces in the process - an otherwise mysterious maneuver that is actually unexplained today, as shown in the book. And, at the level of the overall solar system, this expansion addresses a widely known puzzling anomaly with the Pioneer space probes and other spacecraft as they travel through the solar system and beyond. These deviations from predicted trajectories can now be understood as possible artifacts of our Newtonian gravitational models based on a force emanating from a given mass, when Expansion Theory suggests our models should be based on the geometry of size and expansion.
And, much as expanding atoms replace "gravitational energy", the concept of expanding subatomic particles replaces the energies of "Electric Charge" and "Strong and Weak Nuclear Forces". These separate energy concepts become abstractions for the single underlying phenomenon of subatomic expansion. And such abstractions become unnecessary in a new model of the atom where neutrons and protons are not true particles, but clusters of expanding (not "charged") electrons, and where "orbiting" electrons instead rapidly bounce off the resultant expanding nucleus.
Today's "strong nuclear force" holding the powerfully repelling "positively charged" nuclear protons together, all of whose required power sources are oddly absent, is replaced by the natural compression of rapidly expanding protons and neutrons pushing against each other. And the "weak nuclear force" responsible for occasional nuclear decay then furthers the suggestion that neutrons may be less stable clusters of active expanding electrons that occasionally eject an electron to become a more stable proton, in a more straightforward proposal for nuclear "decay".
This new atomic model also addresses chemical bonds, which are currently considered as endless electric-charge or electromagnetic energy. And, beyond the atom's outer edge, expanding electrons manifest as a tremendous external group expansion of countless electrons outside the atom in a "Crossover Effect" that we call electric and magnetic fields.
In the end, all forms of "energy" are ultimately represented as different manifestations of one singular phenomenon. The internal energies and structure of atoms is explained by expanding electrons in the subatomic realm. "Gravitational energy" is explained as atomic expansion due to this inner expansion at the atomic boundary. "Electric and magnetic field energies" are explained as clouds of expanding electrons surrounding or emanating from conductive materials or objects. And "electromagnetic energy", such as radio waves or radiant heat and light, are explained as bands or clusters of freely expanding electrons continually replenished from the radiation source and pushing one another through space at the speed of light. The flow of electrons through electric circuits is also driven by subatomic expansion rather than "electric charge", and this flow of expanding electrons pushing each other through wires runs our domestic appliances.