'The Revolution transformed how many Americans thought about education: like Jefferson they believed the future of the republic depended on an educated citizenry & that the opportunities offered by schooling should be available to rich & poor alike. The best way was to encourage local public schools and to limit the growth of academies. Horace Mann said the only solution was to make every family a stakeholder in the public schools. Wealthier families would invest in other people’s children only if their own children attended the same schools and benefited from them. Americans realized that leaving education to parental whims and pocketbooks created vast inequalities and could not ensure an educated citizenry. 'The Trump-DeVos conception of education as a private choice ignores our collective interests as a society, ' 'says historical scholar Johann Neem.