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The Myth of Human Progress

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Cross-posted from Truthdig

Illustration by Mr. Fish

Clive Hamilton in his "Requiem for a Species: Why We Resist the Truth About Climate Change" describes a dark relief that comes from accepting that "catastrophic climate change is virtually certain." This obliteration of "false hopes," he says, requires an intellectual knowledge and an emotional knowledge. The first is attainable. The second, because it means that those we love, including our children, are almost certainly doomed to insecurity, misery and suffering within a few decades, if not a few years, is much harder to acquire. To emotionally accept impending disaster, to attain the gut-level understanding that the power elite will not respond rationally to the devastation of the ecosystem, is as difficult to accept as our own mortality. The most daunting existential struggle of our time is to ingest this awful truth -- intellectually and emotionally -- and continue to resist the forces that are destroying us.

The human species, led by white Europeans and Euro-Americans, has been on a 500-year-long planetwide rampage of conquering, plundering, looting, exploiting and polluting the Earth -- as well as killing the indigenous communities that stood in the way. But the game is up. The technical and scientific forces that created a life of unparalleled luxury -- as well as unrivaled military and economic power -- for the industrial elites are the forces that now doom us. The mania for ceaseless economic expansion and exploitation has become a curse, a death sentence. But even as our economic and environmental systems unravel, after the hottest year in the contiguous 48 states since record keeping began 107 years ago, we lack the emotional and intellectual creativity to shut down the engine of global capitalism. We have bound ourselves to a doomsday machine that grinds forward, as the draft report of the National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee illustrates.

Complex civilizations have a bad habit of destroying themselves. Anthropologists including Joseph Tainter in "The Collapse of Complex Societies," Charles L. Redman in "Human Impact on Ancient Environments" and Ronald Wright in "A Short History of Progress" have laid out the familiar patterns that lead to systems breakdown. The difference this time is that when we go down, the whole planet will go with us. There will, with this final collapse, be no new lands left to exploit, no new civilizations to conquer, no new peoples to subjugate. The long struggle between the human species and the Earth will conclude with the remnants of the human species learning a painful lesson about unrestrained greed and self-worship.

"There is a pattern in the past of civilization after civilization wearing out its welcome from nature, overexploiting its environment, overexpanding, overpopulating," Wright said when I reached him by phone at his home in British Columbia, Canada...

"They tend to collapse quite soon after they reach their period of greatest magnificence and prosperity. That pattern holds good for a lot of societies, among them the Romans, the ancient Maya and the Sumerians of what is now southern Iraq. There are many other examples, including smaller-scale societies such as Easter Island. The very things that cause societies to prosper in the short run, especially new ways to exploit the environment such as the invention of irrigation, lead to disaster in the long run because of unforeseen complications. This is what I called in 'A Short History of Progress' the 'progress trap.' 
"We have set in motion an industrial machine of such complexity and such dependence on expansion that we do not know how to make do with less or move to a steady state in terms of our demands on nature. We have failed to control human numbers. They have tripled in my lifetime. And the problem is made much worse by the widening gap between rich and poor, the upward concentration of wealth, which ensures there can never be enough to go around. The number of people in dire poverty today -- about 2 billion -- is greater than the world's entire population in the early 1900s. That's not progress."

"If we continue to refuse to deal with things in an orderly and rational way, we will head into some sort of major catastrophe, sooner or later. If we are lucky it will be big enough to wake us up worldwide but not big enough to wipe us out. That is the best we can hope for. We must transcend our evolutionary history. We're Ice Age hunters with a shave and a suit. We are not good long-term thinkers. We would much rather gorge ourselves on dead mammoths by driving a herd over a cliff than figure out how to conserve the herd so it can feed us and our children forever. That is the transition our civilization has to make. And we're not doing that."

Wright, who in his dystopian novel, "A Scientific Romance," paints a picture of a future world devastated by human stupidity, cites "entrenched political and economic interests" and a failure of the human imagination as the two biggest impediments to radical change. And all of us who use fossil fuels, who sustain ourselves through the formal economy, he says, are at fault.

Modern capitalist societies, Wright argues in his book, "What Is America?: A Short History of the New World Order," derive from European invaders' plundering of the indigenous cultures in the Americas from the 16th to the 19th centuries, coupled with the use of African slaves as a workforce to replace the natives. The numbers of those natives fell by more than 90 percent because of smallpox and other plagues they hadn't had before. The Spaniards did not conquer any of the major societies until smallpox had crippled them; in fact the Aztecs beat them the first time around. 

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If Europe had not been able to seize the gold of the Aztec and Inca civilizations;  if it had not been able to occupy the land and adopt highly productive New World crops for use on European farms, the growth of industrial society in Europe would have been much slower. Karl Marx and Adam Smith both pointed to the influx of wealth from the Americas as having made possible the Industrial Revolution and the start of modern capitalism. It was the rape of the Americas, Wright points out, that triggered the orgy of European expansion. The Industrial Revolution also equipped the Europeans with technologically advanced weapons systems, making further subjugation, plundering and expansion possible.

"The experience of a relatively easy 500 years of expansion and colonization, the constant taking over of new lands, led to the modern capitalist myth that you can expand forever," Wright said...

"It is an absurd myth. We live on this planet. We can't leave it and go somewhere else. We have to bring our economies and demands on nature within natural limits, but we have had a 500-year run where Europeans, Euro-Americans and other colonists have over-run the world and taken it over. This 500-year run made it not only seem easy but normal. We believe things will always get bigger and better. We have to understand that this long period of expansion and prosperity was an anomaly. It has rarely happened in history and will never happen again. We have to readjust our entire civilization to live in a finite world. But we are not doing it, because we are carrying far too much baggage, too many mythical versions of deliberately distorted history and a deeply ingrained feeling that what being modern is all about is having more. This is what anthropologists call an ideological pathology, a self-destructive belief that causes societies to crash and burn. These societies go on doing things that are really stupid because they can't change their way of thinking. And that is where we are."

And as the collapse becomes palpable, if human history is any guide, we -- like past societies in distress -- will retreat into what anthropologists call "crisis cults." The powerlessness we will feel in the face of ecological and economic chaos will unleash further collective delusions, such as fundamentalist belief in a god or gods who will come back to earth and save us.

"Societies in collapse often fall prey to the belief that if certain rituals are performed all the bad stuff will go away," Wright said...

"There are many examples of that throughout history. In the past these crisis cults took hold among people who had been colonized, attacked and slaughtered by outsiders, who had lost control of their lives. They see in these rituals the ability to bring back the past world, which they look at as a kind of paradise. They seek to return to the way things were. Crisis cults spread rapidly among Native American societies in the 19th century, when the buffalo and the Indians were being slaughtered by repeating rifles and finally machine guns. People came to believe, as happened in the  Ghost Dance, that if they did the right things the modern world that was intolerable--the barbed wire, the railways, the white man, the machine gun--would disappear."

Wright says we all have the same, basic psychological hard wiring...

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"It makes us quite bad at long-range planning and leads us to cling to irrational delusions when faced with a serious threat. Look at the extreme right's belief that if government got out of the way, the lost paradise of the 1950s would return. Look at the way we are letting oil and gas exploration rip when we know that expanding the carbon economy is suicidal for our children and grandchildren. The results can already be felt. When it gets to the point where large parts of the Earth experience crop failure at the same time then we will have mass starvation and a breakdown in order. That is what lies ahead if we do not deal with climate change."

According to Wright...

"If we fail in this great experiment, this experiment of apes becoming intelligent enough to take charge of their own destiny, nature will shrug and say it was fun for a while to let the apes run the laboratory, but in the end it was a bad idea."


Chris Hedges spent nearly two decades as a foreign correspondent in Central America, the Middle East, Africa and the Balkans. He has reported from more than 50 countries and has worked for The Christian Science Monitor, National Public Radio, The Dallas Morning News and The New York Times, for which he was a foreign correspondent for 15 years.

Hedges was part of the team of (more...)

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I commend to your attention Henry George's writing... by lvtfan on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 10:21:54 AM
long line that the elites marginalized for their p... by Lester Shepherd on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 2:25:06 PM
from Ch 6: The Theory of Population According... by lvtfan on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 6:52:53 PM
Terrific article.  Our modern capitalist soci... by Philip Pease on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 10:53:18 AM
We should wonder how it came about that greed and ... by Stefan Thiesen on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 7:20:13 AM
I'm with you man... Let's hope we can pull this ou... by Andrew Schettino on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 10:16:53 AM
CH is wrong about the Ghost Dance.   ... by Ed Lytwak on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 11:03:54 AM
As Marty Stuart sings in his Badlands song on Reco... by Michael Dewey on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 12:08:01 PM
It's been a long time coming It's going to... by Ed Lytwak on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 1:27:12 PM
1.  I'll never forget reading Dee Brown's cla... by Lester Shepherd on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 2:49:08 PM
According to the desert religions God was fashione... by Ed Lytwak on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 3:44:17 PM
 I react deeply allergic to all pseudo racial... by Stefan Thiesen on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 7:25:12 AM
I try to judge individuals by what they do not the... by Ed Lytwak on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 8:40:29 AM
Holding someone accountable for being born into a ... by Stefan Thiesen on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 3:34:36 PM
The greeks invented money and so it all started wi... by Lester Shepherd on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 1:13:13 PM
Money is a useful medium of exchange, even for vir... by Jim Arnold on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 5:49:20 PM
for the head's up - I am not a historian but read ... by Lester Shepherd on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 7:54:04 PM
Progress through sharing information!... by Jim Arnold on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 8:29:18 PM
Again: no - the "white man" did not invent money. ... by Stefan Thiesen on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 3:50:42 PM
It seems because of overwhelming greed, we are toa... by Lester Shepherd on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 5:38:31 AM
It's all in the first paragraph. It's too late to ... by Bryna Hellmann on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 11:58:08 AM
With "a painful lesson about unrestrained greed an... by R. A. Landbeck on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 12:02:27 PM
Three human behaviors puzzled me, until I imposed ... by molly cruz on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 2:19:07 PM
To put all of your DNA into one basket is not wise... by Ned Lud on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 9:39:53 AM
While Chris does a great job in recognizing and ex... by Alan MacDonald on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 2:43:20 PM
If you want to start a revolution, you must align ... by Robert S. Becker on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 8:22:48 PM
Practically all the world's religions and religiou... by E. J. N. on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 8:59:44 PM
 And we will live it you and I as long as peo... by Carol Jackson on Monday, Jan 14, 2013 at 9:59:13 PM
The Earth could care less what humans do. It will ... by Steve Consilvio on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 9:46:08 AM
The earth could NOT care less than it does, becaus... by Bryna Hellmann on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 12:09:49 PM
Or speaks through Stillness.  I just read the... by muservin on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 11:05:58 AM
Just to clarify something about the Ghost Dance,&n... by E. J. N. on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 1:34:44 PM
Hedges gets the part about every civilization coll... by Phil Weingart on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 11:23:25 AM
May I tell you why many of us have rejected anythi... by Bryna Hellmann on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 12:20:11 PM
Very odd. You live in the waning days of what was ... by Phil Weingart on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 10:10:30 AM
Of the tottering structure itself in questionas a ... by Don Caldarazzo on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 1:12:01 PM
Don't speak to me of logical fallacies before you'... by Phil Weingart on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 10:35:43 AM
I wrote that from my phone, so obvious phone-to-te... by Don Caldarazzo on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 11:47:46 AM
If your kind does succeed in destroying Mother Ear... by Michael Dewey on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 3:02:43 PM
The "promised land" you mention was an untamed wi... by Phil Weingart on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 10:34:02 AM
Its clear to me just as Israel always had wars whe... by Michael Dewey on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 11:31:38 AM
"OH,"  "brother."Hedges is a laureate of many... by muservin on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 3:41:42 PM
I've read quite enough of Brother Hedges, thank yo... by Phil Weingart on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 10:25:27 AM
I am reading "The Kingdom of God is Within You," i... by Michael David Morrissey on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 12:33:57 PM
It would be hard to find a more succinct while gen... by Byron Callas on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 12:36:22 PM
Having given this issue considerable attention ove... by Brian McConnell on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 2:45:53 PM
to understand that  we, humans are civilized ... by Mark Sashine on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 4:14:44 PM
If you look at it that way, it is easy to see how ... by E. J. N. on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 7:55:19 PM
The article shows that progress is a huge ... by Daniel Vasey on Tuesday, Jan 15, 2013 at 8:26:36 PM
In part the picture is simplified, again. Many of ... by Stefan Thiesen on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 4:10:27 PM
This is a clear case of the "trib... by Herbert Calhoun on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 6:45:41 AM
The end of this interesting Post says it all. If w... by Andrew Schettino on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 10:09:21 AM
I think we, quite simply, are not what we think we... by Stefan Thiesen on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 4:14:22 PM
While a lot of people think that government is the... by E. J. N. on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 4:24:33 PM
It is not going to be very easy until the people s... by Michael Dewey on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 6:11:12 PM
That is the title of an article, the beginning of ... by E. J. N. on Wednesday, Jan 16, 2013 at 8:48:44 PM
Good article Chris.   I recommend you read ... by Gary Brumback on Thursday, Jan 17, 2013 at 6:49:53 PM
It was titled Progress, As If Survival Mattered. T... by Daniel Geery on Friday, Jan 18, 2013 at 11:04:54 AM
It's not as if all humans benefit from the progres... by Jill Herendeen on Tuesday, Jan 22, 2013 at 7:39:43 AM