Capricorn by Hugh Colmer
Why didn't the Anglo-Saxons replace Saturday with a Norse god? Most European languages are based on the Latin days of the week, named for the sun, moon, and five planets, which are themselves named for major Classical gods. In the Roman calendar, Saturday was called Dies Saturni in honour of the god Saturn. He was the father of Jupiter, who finally overthrew him. The Saturnalia festival was held in his honor over Xmas. The word "Saturday" means "Saturn's day. Most, if not all, of ancient religions had Saturn in their pantheon of gods. As Christianity was absorbed into pagan Rome, both Christianity and paganism merged into a new religion which retained the pagan celebrations, with new, "Christianized" names. As early as the third century, Tertullian lamented how quick the Christians were to give up their pure faith while the pagans remained faithful to their religion:
As "Saturn" to the Romans, he was Chronos to the Greeks. Cronus was the father of Zeus and the last of the Titan gods. His name means 'Time'. "Saturn/Chronos was the father of all Gods in the mythology of the ancient world. To the Egyptians, he was "Osiris." The Babylonians named him "Bel" while to the Assyrians he was Belus. The Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Canaanites referred to Saturn as Baal. Roman gods were interchangeable with Babylonian gods and Saturn was omnipresent on the Capitoline hill.
In Revelation, Rome is symbolized as a woman named "Mystery Babylon," sitting on a beast with seven heads. The seven heads of the beast are identified as the "seven mountains" on which she sits. This is a direct reference to Rome, long known as "the city of seven hills." The Capitoline Hill, the smallest of Rome's seven hills and the site of the City Saturn was sacred and became the seat of government.
Saturn, Capricorn Ea and Enki are associated with the goat-fish seen on Babylonian monuments. Ea was the "Antelope of the Sea". Capricorn is the "Gate of Death" (polar to the Cancer sign, "Gate of Birth". Saturn is the, "time lord" and "lord of the outer darkness. Saturn and Ophion are also identified with the primordial Orphic gods Phanes and Chronos usually depicted with a serpentine (Ophion) fish-tail in place of legs, and wielding a serpent (ophis) in his hands. Serpentine Chronos and his mate Ananke (counterpart of Eurynome) surrounded the cosmos with their coils.
Saturn ruled over the pre-Flood Atlantis and is the ancestor of patriarchs and kings. Shiva is represented by the planet Saturn known as the Lord of Karma. The six pointed star is associated with the worship of Saturn. Saturn or Chronos was worshipped by the ancient Romans, Egyptian and Palestinians as the "beast out of the sea". Saturn, emerged from the cosmic sea as the serpent who rescued the world following the chaos of Genesis 1. Saturn is "the Dark Lord" of the underworld. And there is clearly an etymological connection between "Satan" who is Enki, Ea, Poseidon, Dagon or Oannes. The Biblical Leviathan, the beast who will rise from the sea at the Apocalypse is Tiamat the mother of Saturn; the true ruler of Atlantis.
In Hindu astrology the Makara is also the astrological sign of Capricorn and Saturn. This strange creature is popular both in ancient times and in our present day. But is it mythical? The Makara is often depicted with the head of a crocodile, horns of a goat, the body of an antelope and a serpent. Varuna is said to be the only one who can control the Makara. Vedic Varuna is sometimes thought to be Greek Ouranos, based on the respective gods' attributes. Varuna became the god of oceans.
When one looks at recent scientific discoveries and allows some 'artistic license' the Makara becomes a reality. Recent discoveries in archaeology have revealed what paleontologists call a Pliosaur. The fossilized Pliosaur was found in Dorset, England in 2003 and took until 2008 to remove from the rock cliff in which it was found. Scientists suspect the Pliosaur fossil is approximately 155-million-years old and lived during the Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods as one of the top predators of the oceans. The Makara has mythical status as a public holiday in January today.
The Matsya avatar of Vishnu is associated with the makara. In Sumeria he equates with the god Enki the (half fish-half goat) the symbol for Capricorn. Matsya, like Enki, forewarns Manu about an impending catastrophic flood and orders him to preserve all living creatures in the ark which Matsya pulls to safety. In later versions of this story, the Vedas are hidden by a demon, whom Matsya slays: Manu is rescued and the Vedas are recovered. The Flood Story from the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh predates the Christian account of Noahby well over 1,000 years or more. The Judeo/Christian Bible claims that Yahweh/Enlil caused the flood but some say he"Enlil" allowed the flood to take place. Satan is NOT Saturn. The Gnostics equated Satan and Saturn, and their Neo-Gnostic progenies are still promulgating this error today.