People with drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) are neglected by governments
The countries that report high burden of tuberculosis (TB), particularly, drug-resistant strains of TB, are the ones not moving fast enough to provide life saving treatment. According to the International medical humanitarian organization, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) or doctors without borders, less than one percent of those with multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) get access to proper treatment as per the International standards of treatment and care guidelines of World Health Organization (WHO). Even the Stop TB Partnership agrees that about three per cent of those with MDR-TB might be receiving proper treatment.
"Only 3% of people who have MDR-TB have access to effective treatment. We have compelling evidence that we know how to prevent and treat MDR-TB and treatment success rate is 80% in low resource setting. Its intervention is complex but is effective, feasible and is cost-effective" stressed said Dr Ernesto Jaramillo, Medical Officer, Stop TB Department, World Health Organization (WHO) at the 3rd Stop TB Partners' Forum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Dr Mario Raviglione, Director of the WHO's Stop TB department, said that "the WHO Global Tuberculosis Control Report 2009 confirms the notion that there might be more than half a million MDR-TB cases every year. 54 countries have reported extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) to us."
As ministers from high-burden multi- and extensively- drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) countries gather from 1-3 April 2009 in Beijing, China, for a high-level ministerial meeting on M/XDR-TB, MSF calls on them to commit to treating more people with MDR-TB, and to conducting necessary research to improve current treatment options.
The WHO reports that there are more than 500,000 new MDR-TB cases each year, but that under 30,000 people were detected and notified last year and only 3,681 are known to have started treatment according to international guidelines and with quality-assured medicines.
“The slow progress in treating people with MDR-TB is particularly striking because high-burden MDR-TB countries are definitely not the least developed in the world,” said Dr. Tido von Schoen-Angerer, Director of MSF’s Access to Essential Medicines Campaign. “They have the capacity to act, and need to make this a priority and put people on treatment.”
MSF is concerned that many countries, particularly those that are classified by WHO as ‘high-burden’, like China, South Africa or India, are not doing enough to provide treatment to patients in need. In addition, not providing appropriate treatment further contributes to the spread of drug-resistant TB.
China, for example, has a quarter of the world’s MDR-TB cases. Answering to an initial request made by the Chinese National TB Programme, MSF then failed to obtain the authorisation to provide care for MDR-TB patients in inner Mongolia, despite two years of negotiations with national, provincial and regional authorities. MSF has now abandoned its attempts to open the project.
“Not being able to act when there are people that need life-saving treatment is extremely frustrating,” said Meinie Nicolai, MSF Director of Operations. “Because we did not manage to reach an agreement, we could not put a single patient on treatment. And because they can’t get treated anywhere else, many people will have died while we were stalled in meetings these past two years.”
“Crucially, high-burden countries have the skills and some of the resources needed to conduct the research to improve MDR-TB treatment,” says Dr. von Schoen-Angerer. “The Beijing meeting is an opportunity for high-burden countries to take the lead in addressing this crisis, by setting targets to put more patients on treatment, by agreeing to import quality-assured drugs, and by establishing a joint research effort to improve existing treatment.”
In 2007, MSF treated 574 patients for MDR-TB in 12 projects including in South Africa, India, Uzbekistan, Georgia and Armenia.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the countries with the highest burden of MDR-TB are India (131,000 cases), China (112,000), Russia (43,000), South Africa (16,000) and Bangladesh (15,000).
The High Level Ministerial Meeting on M/XDR-TB is being organized by WHO, the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
"We have been able to convince the ministers of health of 27 high burden M/XDR-TB countries to come to the Beijing meeting and commit to achieve the targets of the Global Plan to Stop TB" said Dr Ernesto Jaramillo, Medical Officer, Stop TB Department, WHO at the 3rd Stop TB Partners' Forum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
"The 2nd Global Plan to Stop TB which was launched in 2006 had laid out specific targets for MDR-TB, to provide universal access to diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB by year 2015" said Dr Jaramillo.