Millions of women and around the world are still unable to protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Over 1 million people contract a sexually transmitted infection every day, half of whom are young people - mostly women. In fact women are 5 times more likely to get STIs than men. Also, currently 222 million women have an unmet need for contraception and approximately 290,000 women in developing countries die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth every year.
While in India unmet need of contraception has remained static around 15% to 21% since the last one decade, Philippines has the highest rate of teen pregnancy in the ASEAN region, recording a 70% increase in teen pregnancy in the past decade.
The consequence of unsafe sex is a great public-health challenge of our times. Women risk unintended pregnancies, as well as HIV and other infections, leading to high rates of maternal and child mortality. With 86 million unintended pregnancies around the world every year and a young woman getting infected with HIV every minute, women need user-friendly products that provide more comprehensive protection.
The female condom is perhaps one of the very few currently available f emale-initiated methods that provides multiple protections against a range of STIs, including HIV, and unintended pregnancies. It also provides bi-directional protection to both partners. However, although female condoms were approved by the US FDA in 1993, more than 20 years later even today they represent only 1% of all condoms distributed worldwide. In India they are still far from being available and accessible to women, while male condom use continues to hover around 5% despite it being an effective multipurpose prevention option for STIs and unintended pregnancies.
Multipurpose Prevention Technologies
Multipurpose Prevention Technologies (MPTs) for sexual and reproductive health are new tools in development that are designed to address multiple sexual and reproductive health needs, including prevention of unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV, and other reproductive-tract infections (RTIs). MPTs that are safe, acceptable, affordable, and easily available. If used, they would save lives and money and improve the health of women and their families across the world.
Promising and innovative MPTs in the pipeline include multipurpose vaccines and gels, easier-to-use vaginal rings, and single-sized diaphragms that may provide simultaneous protection against unintended pregnancy and STIs and have a major impact on the health of women and their families. New microbiocide gels can lead to declines in HIV and STIs while contraceptive technologies appropriate for dual use can increase the positive global health impacts of family planning.
While speaking to Citizen News Service (CNS) at the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Reproductive and Sexual Health and Rights (7th APCRSHR) being held in Manila, Jeross Aguilar, Chairperson, Youth Steering Committee, Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP) and Member of International Steering Committee of 7th APCRSHR, said: "MPTs can be great tools to empower women and improve their sexual and reproductive health. Devices like intra-uterine devices (IUDs), male and female condoms, all should be available free of cost, if possible, to those in need. Women should have a wide variety of choices, which are most conducive to their life style, available when it comes to choosing family-planning techniques as no one method suits all. Some women may not like taking pills and may be more amenable to using injectables or IUDs. So while there should be more research to have better devices, merely inventing new and better techniques is not enough. It is equally important to make them freely available and to inform people adequately about their use to remove the stigma and misconceptions surrounding them. I feel that to increase male condom use we need to change the method of propaganda and promote it innovatively. We need to propagate that one who uses the condom and understands and respects the women is a cool and responsible guy. 'You are not a man if you do not use condoms'; 'it is sexy and cool to use condoms'; 'a man who does not use a condom is irresponsible'; 'you are cool if you respect women' - these are the kind of slogans and advertising we need."
MPTs, many of them though still in the research-and-development stage, can empower women, make them healthier, and improve their economic opportunities. These products that can simultaneously address multiple sexual and reproductive-health needs of women will go a long way in helping policymakers meet multiple health and development goals.
A survey, facilitated by CNS and Initiative of Multipurpose Prevention Technologies for Reproductive Health (IMPTs), is also being carried out with delegates of 7th APCRSHR. This survey was earlier carried out at International Conference on Family Planning 2013, 11th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific (11th ICAAP), and International Conference on AIDS and STIs in Africa (ICASA) 2013. (CNS)
Shobha Shukla, Citizen News Service (CNS)
(The author is the Managing Editor of Citizen News Service - CNS. She is a J2J Fellow of National Press Foundation (NPF) USA and received her editing training in Singapore. She has earlier worked with State Planning Institute , UP, and taught physics at India's prestigious Loreto Convent. She also co-authored and edited publications on childhood TB, childhood pneumonia, Hepatitis C virus and HIV, violence against women and girls, and MDR-TB. Email removed , website: www.citizen-news.org . )