(part 3 of 3)
The history of energy exploration, mining, and delivery is best understood in a range from benevolent exploitation to worker and public oppression. A company comes into an area, leases land in rural and agricultural areas for mineral rights, increases employment, usually in a depressed economy, strips the land of its resources, creates health problems for its workers and those in the immediate area, and then leaves.
It makes no difference if it's timber, oil, or coal. In the 1970s and 1980s, the nuclear energy industry promised well-paying jobs, clean energy, and a safe health and work environment. Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Fukushima Daiichi, and thousands of violations issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Agency, have shown that even with strict operating guidelines, nuclear energy isn't as clean and safe as claimed. Like all other energy industries, nuclear power isn't infinite. Most plants have a 40--50 year life cycle. After that, the plant becomes so radioactive hot that it must be sealed.
In the early 21st century, the natural gas industry follows the model of the other energy corporations, and uses the same rhetoric. James M. Taylor , senior fellow at the Heartland Institute , claims on the Institute's website, "The newfound abundance of domestic gas reserves promises unprecedented energy prosperity and security."
The energy policy during the eight years of the George W. Bush--Dick Cheney administration was to give favored status to the industry, often at the expense of the environment. In addition to negating Bill Clinton's strong support for the Kyoto Protocol , signed by 191 countries, to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, former oil company executives Bush and Cheney pushed to open significant federal land, including the 19 million acre Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), to drilling that would disrupt the ecological balance in one of the nation's most pristine areas.
A study by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), published in 2004 concluded that fracking was of little or no risk to human health. However, Wes Wilson, a 30-year EPA environmental engineer, in a letter to members of Congress and the EPA inspector general, called that study "scientifically unsound," and questioned the bias of the panel, noting that five of the seven members had significant ties to the industry. "EPA's failure to regulate [fracking] appears to be improper under the Safe Water Drinking Act and may result in danger to public health and safety."
The following year, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 --on a 249--183 vote in the House and an 85--12 vote in the Senate--exempted the oil and natural gas industry from the Safe Water Drinking Act . That exemption applied to the "construction of new well pads and the accompany ing new roads and pipelines." The National Defense Resource Council noted that the EPA interpreted the exemption "as allowing unlimited discharges of sediment into the nation's streams, even where those discharges contribute to a violation of state water quality standards." The exemption became known derisively as the Halliburton Loophole, named for one of the nation's major energy companies, of which Cheney, whose promotion of Big Business and opposition to environmental policies is well-documented, had once been the CEO.
Bills introduced in the U.S. House ( H.R. 2766 ) and U.S. Senate ( S. 1215 ) in June 2009 to give federal regulatory oversight under the Safe Water Drinking Act to hydraulic fracturing languished. New bills ( H.R. 1084 and S. 587 ), introduced in March 2011 in the 112th Congress, are also expected to die without a vote.
The natural gas industry has a long history of effective lobbying at the state and national level. America's Natural Gas Alliance has four former Congressmen as lobbyists, according to research by the Center for Responsive Politics (CRP). Through various political action committees (PACs), the industry has contributed about $238.7 million in campaign contributions, about three-fourths of it to Republican candidates, since 1990, according to the CRP. For the 2008 election, the gas and oil industry contributed $27.4 million, including contributions from individuals, PACs, and soft money, according to CRP data. Total contributions for the current election cycle, as of mid-March, are $20.6 million, with almost 90 percent of it going to Republicans.
At the federal level, the top recipients of oil and gas contributions during the current election cycle, according to the CRP, are former presidential hopeful Gov. Rick Perry of Texas ($833,674), Lt. Gov. David Dewhurst of Texas ($650,850), presidential hopeful Mitt Romney ($597,950), Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell ($264,700), and Sen. John Barasso of Wyoming ($225,400), a member of the Energy and Natural Resources Committee . Every one of the top 20 recipients is a Republican.
Barack Obama, although significantly more environmental friendly than his predecessor, had opened up off-shore drilling just prior to the BP oil spill in the Gulf Coast in April 2010. He has repeatedly spoken against the heavy use and dependence upon fossil fuels, and sees the expanded use of natural gas as a transition fuel to expanded use of wind and solar energy. Nevertheless, he has still received funding from the natural gas industry. During the 2008 presidential campaign, he received $920,922 from the oil and gas industry, according to data compiled by the CRP. His opponent, Sen. John McCain, according to CRP, accepted $2,543,154.