America's Afghanistan Legacy
America's killing machine is the latest one to ravage Afghanistan with no end.
by Stephen Lendman
In his book titled, "Freedom Next Time: Resisting the Empire," John Pilger discussed Afghanistan, saying:
"Through all the humanitarian crises in living memory, no country has been abused and suffered more, and none has been helped less than Afghanistan."
He described what looked more like a moonscape than a functioning nation. In Kabul, "contours of rubble rather than streets (exist), where people live in collapsed buildings, like earthquake victims waiting for rescue....(with) no light or heat."
If hell on earth exists, it's headquartered is in Afghanistan, but has many global affiliate locations.
Afghanistan's Troubled History: A Brief Account
It goes back centuries since before Alexander the Great. Afghans endured what few can imagine. Marauding armies besieged cities, slaughtered thousands, and caused vast destruction.
In the 19th century, imperial Britain and Czarist Russia intervened. "Great Game" struggles followed. Wars, devastation and deep poverty resulted.
Until 1919, Afghanistan was a UK protectorate. After Czarist Russia fell, King Amanullah declared his country's independence. At the same time, he signed an aid and friendship treaty with Lenin and fought Britain.
Border skirmishes followed. Kabul was bombed. Finally London gave it up and quit, but conspired with anti Amanullah elements against him. As a result, he abdicated in 1929. Warlords contended for power.
King Muhammad Nadir Shah took over. Four years later he was assassinated. Muhammad Zahir Shah replaced him. As Afghanistan's last king, he ruled autocratically for 40 years.
In 1973, he was ousted and a republic declared. However, little changed under family member Daoud Khan as president. In 1978, a military coup removed him. In 1979, Soviet Russia invaded. Moscow put Babrak Karmal in charge, then Mohammad Najubullah in 1987. He lasted until 1992.
In the 1980s, US recruited mujahideen fighters battled Soviet occupiers. In 1989 they left, but a ravaged country remained.