From Informed Comment
The holy Muslim fasting month of Ramadan began Monday, April 12, and for the succeeding week and a half there was trouble at Jerusalem's Damascus Gate. Muslim youth were used to gathering in the square in front of the gate, which had been built by the Ottoman Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. This year, in their ceaseless quest to impose their security presence on every inch of the city, the Israeli police decided to try to interfere with these gatherings by putting up iron railings and harassing the youth.
Americans who read about Muslims in Jerusalem may be confused. Many will know from the Old Testament about Jerusalem as the capital of the ancient kingdom of Judah and so will think an Israeli claim on the city is a historical revival. And, of course, they will know of Jesus's relationship to the city where he was tried by the Roman prefect and executed for political sedition in the Roman manner, by crucifixion.
So what are the Muslims doing there? you may ask.
Very briefly: The Prophet Muhammad (d. 632) is believed by Muslims to have journey to Jerusalem and to have ascended from the site of the al-Aqsa complex up to heaven, from which he returned to continue his prophetic mission. I argued in my book, Muhammad: Prophet of Peace amid the Clash of Empires
That we may conclude from the Qur'an and the account of Jacob of Edessa that Muhammad likely did visit Jerusalem on a trading journey in 617 or 618, when it was under the rule of the Iranian Sasanian Empire, and had a mystical experience there at the Temple Mount, which was then abandoned. After the Romans destroyed the Temple in 70 AD they gradually banned Jews from living there. At first they built pagan temples in the city, but after Constantine they built the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and made it a Christian city. Iran conquered it in 614 and held it until early 630.
After the Prophet's death in 632, the Eastern Roman Empire tried to reassert itself in Palestine (that was what they called it). There is some indication that Jews were persecuted, for having tilted to the Iranian side during the war. The Miaphysite Christian majority may also not have been happy about the reimposition of Chalcedonian rule. There may have been uprisings among local Arabs. Somehow the second Muslim vicar of Muhammad, the Commander of the Faithful Umar ibn al-Khattab, got drawn in to these struggles, and his armies conquered Jerusalem and the Near East away from the Eastern Romans. Umar built a small structure on the Temple Mount that later Umayyad kings expanded into the al-Aqsa Mosque, finishing it in 705.
Muslims then ruled Jerusalem, and considered it holy, from 636 until 1917, with the exception of a period of less than a century during the Crusades, 1099-1187 and 1243-1244. Most Jews and Christians in the area over time converted to Islam (and usually quite voluntarily).
Muslims ruled Jerusalem far longer than Jews did, in history.
Israel conquered East Jerusalem and occupied it in 1967.
So, back to this week and the oppression of the Palestinians at Damascus Gate.
There were also some political demonstrations mixed in with the post-fasting gatherings, apparently, since the Palestinians of East Jerusalem were unhappy about bruited Israeli plans to stop them from voting in the upcoming elections for the Palestine Authority. Israel illegally annexed Palestinian East Jerusalem and fears allowing its residents to vote in a Palestinian election would legitimize Palestinian claims to East Jerusalem. Although the disposition of Jerusalem is an unsettled final status issue in ongoing Israeli-Palestinian negotiations (stalled now for many years), the Israelis jumped the gun and unilaterally declared Jerusalem a unified city under Israeli control. This declaration has no standing in international law.
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Juan Cole is an American academic and commentator on the modern Middle East and South Asia. He is Richard P. Mitchell Collegiate Professor of History at the University of Michigan. Since 2002, he has written a weblog, Informed Comment (more...)
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