Reprinted from Greanville Post
The image of Christ on the cross is one of the oldest historico-cultural symbols. The question is, were the Jews, as a race or culture guilty, en masse, and forever, as the patristic fathers claim, for his death? And wasn't Jesus and his early followers p
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St. John Chrysostom's likeness, as seen on Istanbul's Hagia Sofia. Typical for a Middle Eastern patristic scholar of the time, the man was a fierce and unapologetic anti-semite, making much of his career as a prominent church leader a vehicle for the pers
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The concept that "the Jews killed Christ" had been around almost since the earliest days of the Church. Following the Council of Nicaea, it was codified by such theologians as St. John Chrysostom and St. Augustine. It became embedded in Catholic Doctrine until it was purged during the Second Vatican Council(1962-1965) under the leadership of Pope John XXIII. Over the centuries the doctrine was used in a variety of ways, both by the Church itself and by secular rulers who claimed to be following Church doctrine. It had a religious basis of course, but was also used in a wide variety of ways to achieve both political and economic ends.
But regardless of what this First Stage of anti-Semitism was used for, it was based on a myth: that the Jewish people as a whole were responsible for the killing of Christ (if indeed such an event took place), at the time and then forever down through the ages. Of course, although certain Jewish priests at the time may well have been in league with the secular Roman rulers of Palestine to help them try to bring this new religion under control, that the Jewish People as a whole were and continued to be responsible for the event was totally mythological. That of course, did not prevent anti-Semitism from being used over the millennia to perpetrate successive persecutions, discriminations, and horrors on the Jewish people.
Sculpture of John Chrysostom in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City. The church apologized recently for his excesses and crimes as a hatemonger, but no attempt has been made to put a plaque, at least, to demote him from his official exalted position in
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But then, in the 19th century, first in Germany and Austria, a new form of anti-Semitism was developed, the Second Stage, which could be called political anti-Semitism. In fact, its inventors made up the word "anti-Semitism" to describe it. That is the use of organized anti-Semitism primarily for political purposes (including electoral ones). Just as religious-based anti-Semitism had been based on a myth, so was the new form. The myth was of course that "the Jews controlled everything" (secretly, of course), that everything that was wrong with the country in which it was being promoted was the fault of the Jews and so on and so forth. The new doctrine was then used for organizing politically, brought to its highest level of political function by the Nazis, of course. An important early document that supposedly proved that this was the case was a book called The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, originally published in 1903.
It purported to show that there was indeed a Jewish plot afoot, to take over the world. It was actually written by the Czarist secret police. (It was shown to be a forgery by the Times of London as early as 1921. The first book which did so was published by the Columbia University Press in 1942 (Curtiss, J. S., An Appraisal of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, New York: Columbia University Press, 1942). (I am proud to say that it was my father, Prof. Harold J. Jonas, who did much for the research for that effort.) So this was the second major form of anti-Semitism, this time leading to the murder of millions of people just because they happened to be Jews, but like the first, based on a myth. Interestingly enough, the Protocols are still widely circulated in certain parts of the world and held up as proof of the "Jewish Plot" to take over the world.
We are now in the Third Stage of anti-Semitism. Unfortunately, this one is based on fact: the failure of the settlers of the Jewish portion of the Palestine Mandate that under the 1947 UN resolution that provided for the Partition of the Mandate into Jewish and Arab (Palestinian) sectors to come to a peaceful settlement with the original Arab inhabitants of the land. Why do I use the term "failure of the settlers"? Not that the Palestinians have been just wonderful negotiating partners for the Israelis, but the latter have always held the upper hand militarily, have maintained the split in the Arab portion of the original Mandate territory, have been gradually encroaching upon the East Bank of the Arab sector, have discriminated against the Palestinian Israelis, in recent years have unleashed successive horrors on that piece of Palestinian territory known as the Gaza Strip (including proposals at the governmental level to "solve" the problem through the forcible expulsion of its population), and so on and so forth.
And so, it is "real stuff" that the government of Israel is doing that becomes the stuff of the Third Stage. But how, one might ask, does Israeli government policy become the basis of this form of anti-Semitism? It does precisely because the now long-governing, successive right-wing movements of Israel have very consciously conflated "Israeli" with "Jew." Inside Israel, Israeli Arabs are treated as second-class citizens. The Netanyahu/Likud government has made one of its current conditions of bargaining for a settlement, the recognition of Israel as a "Jewish State." Israeli policy towards the other large concentration of Jews in the world, those living in the United States, is that they somehow have some special connection with Israel, because they are Jews. And further, that any Jew (like myself, who is a strong opponent of Israeli/Likud policy) is a "self-hating Jew," a "Jew-enemy of the Jewish people," and so on and so forth, further conflating "Jew" and "Israeli."
Netanyahu: He typifies the virulent Jewish supremacist/expansionist strain of leadership in a defiantly Zionist Israel, although his predecessors were not as liberal as the myth would have it.
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And so, in part the recent resurgence of anti-Semitism around the world has been precisely the result of the conflation in many quarters of the words "Jew" and "Israeli," a conflation caused in major by policy of successive Likud/right-wing governments in the State of Israel. It has even gotten to the point where supporters of the anti-Israeli-government policy of Boycott/Divest/Sanction (BDS), Jews and non-Jews alike, are labeled "anti-Semites" by their opponents.
One example is provided for us by the historian/political analyst Paul Craig Roberts. (His superb article on the whole development of the Third Stage is a must read.) Another is what is going on in the British Labour Party, in which opposition to Israeli government policy, is conflated with anti-Semitism, on the grounds that a certain few supporters of that policy seem themselves to be, individually, anti-Semitic.
But the point here is, after two millennia of religious, then political, anti-Semitism, both based on myth, we now must confront a new form of anti-Semitism, for which policies of successive right-wing governments of the State of Israel have unfortunately managed to provide a rich base in reality.
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