"Two systems are before the world . One looks to pauperism, ignorance, depopulation, and barbarism; the other to increasing wealth, comfort, intelligence, combination of action, and civilization. One looks towards universal war; the other towards universal peace. One is the English system; the other we may be proud to call the American system"--- Matthew Ehret
Matthew Ehret, with contributions from Cynthia Chung, has written a much-needed book about the early history of the United States of America. The title of the book is The Clash of Two Americas, the Unfinished Symphony. It is volume 1 of a planned series. This essay is based on the book.
The "Clash of Two America" is a compendium of historical information. Much of it is not very well-known, even by knowledgeable readers. The book is well-written, an exciting read, and has some elements of a good mystery novel. Except this is a true story.
The "Clash" is a book about the battle between two opposing visions of what the United States of America should be. The opening scene is the American Revolutionary War, The Declaration of Independence and the signing of The Constitution of the United States of America in 1787. The book covers the 18th and 19 century.
One side of the clash is good and the other side is evil. There are heroes and villains. The clash continues today, but so far the winning side has been a tragedy for the American people and the world. Matthew Ehret's book leaves some hope for the future. As he says: "--- the United States is both more than many believe it to be and less than it was meant to become, remaining an unfinished symphony ---". Let's hope the symphony has a rollicking finale!
Most people think that the Revolutionary War was won and done by the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Not so fast! Empires do not give up their colonies willingly and easily. The British did not abandon their effort to regain "their colony" either. All one has to do to understand that is to look at the examples of the U.S. empire. For a century the U.S. has been trying to dominate Cuba, Iran, Russia, and China and to make them obey its imperial will. The U.S. did not just go away after the 1949 creation of the Peoples' Republic of China, the 1961 Bay of Pigs debacle, and Iran's 1979 Islamic Revolution.
Even when the U.S. withdraws from a battle in defeat and humiliation, it does not give up the war. Empires do not just pack up their carpet bags and go home. They do a tactical retreat, swallow their pride, and continue the war. The British Empire did not accept defeat in 1783 either. It continued to meddle in the affairs of the U.S. and tried to subvert it with a divide and conquer strategy. The British agitated for the U.S. Civil War in the hope of regaining their lost colony.
An early British agent was Aaron Burr. He had been Thomas Jefferson's vice president. He later showed his true colors as a traitor by conspiring with the British. After he killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel in 1804, Burr then devoted the rest of his life trying to subvert the U.S. He worked alongside the British Empire, which had bases of operation in its Canadian colony.
Canada was a nest of British agents, many of whom were "loyalists" who fled to Canada after the Revolutionary War. The British also had many sympathizers, spies and conspirators among wealthy Eastern Establishment families who had remained in the U.S. Southern slave-owning aristocrats were natural allies of the British Empire. As Lord Robert Cecil, a three-time Prime Minister, explained to the British parliament in 1861:
"The Northern States of America never can be our sure friends because we are rivals, rivals politically, rivals commercially". With the Southern States, the case is entirely reversed. The population are an agricultural people. They furnish the raw material of our industry, and they consume the products which we manufacture from it. With them, every interest must lead us to cultivate friendly relations, and when the war began they at once recurred to England as their natural ally."
The British gave the South more than moral support, friendship, and comfort during the Civil War. They supplied the South with weapons, warships, and military intelligence and advice. The possibility of a British military invasion was not an idle threat. Their agents ran terrorist operations against the North, too. After the war they conspired in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. As President Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, said:
"It appears from evidence in the Bureau of Military Justice that the " murder of " Abraham Lincoln " [was] incited, concerted, and procured by and between Jefferson Davis, late of Richmond, Va., and Jacob Thompson, Clement C. Clay, [Nathaniel] Beverly Tucker, George N. Sanders, William C. Cleary, and other rebels and traitors against the government of the United States harbored in Canada."
In the Alabama Claim of 1872 the British Empire admitted aiding the South, expressed regret, and paid compensation of $15.5 million to the U.S. Despite Britain's mea culpa it continued to use its bases in Canada for meddling, spying, conspiring and subversive activity against the United States.
The Klu Klux Klan had deep British roots. British secretive societies were dedicated to the expansion of the British Empire: such as Thomas Huxley's X-Club, the Fabian Society, and Lord Milner's Roundtable Movement. The Roundtable Movement was funded by Cecil Rhode's seventh will. Rhodes did not make a secret of his agenda. It was, as he wrote in his will:
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