Article by Bruce Lerro, Co-Founder of Socialist Planning Beyond Capitalism
How similar or different are large crowds of people psychologically from small groups or individuals? Are crowds any more violent? Is emotional contagion more likely to spread faster in crowds? Are crowds more spontaneous than small groups? Are crowds more suggestible than small groups of individuals? Are crowds any more unified in their purposes than small groups? Why is there a generally suspicious and negative attitude towards crowds. Which classes benefit? Which classes lose?
As I was looking at images to place at the beginning of this article, I was struck by how many images and quotes there were of Le Bon. It is pretty amazing for someone whose first work was published in 1895 and whose last works are still around 100 years old. It is especially strange given how unscientific his methods were and how recent empirical studies of crowds like David Miller's Introduction to Collective Behavior and Collective Action contradicts virtually everything Le Bon claimed. Why is Le Bon's work still circulating despite lack of scientific rigor? Why have the last fifty years of research on crowds that have a solid scientific basis been ignored?
Purpose of this article
The purpose of this article is to:
- Expose the propagandist roots and branches of our biases against crowds while showing some of the scientific evidence that supports the actual behavior of crowds.
- To outline what historical events occurred that supported the prejudice against crowds.
- Propose that it is ruling-class fears of crowds that fuels the perpetuation of unscientific theories about crowds.
- Propose that ruling class fears that working-class people mobilized into crowds will seize their resources, destroy their property and enslave them.
Crowds vs Masses
Crowds are large collections of people who meet at the same place at the same time and are large enough that it is difficult to have a central conversation. A loudspeaker, microphone or some external device is necessary to have a single central discussion. There are different kinds of crowds. There are casual crowds like those that meet by chance at the scene of an accident or a fire. They may congregate to watch a building go up or be torn down. A second kind of crowd are long lines that form to buy tickets to ball games or musical concerts.
An audience is a more formal crowd with a more deliberate focus. Examples are attending a musical concert or a sporting event. Lasty, there are unconventional crowds which can lead to riots, lynchings, protests and demonstrations. Mass behavior involves large numbers of people who are spatially dispersed but participate in common activities like fads or fashions. Mass behavior involves the use of radio (Orson Wells, War of the Worlds) television, movies which often lead to rumors or urban legends.
Questionnaire on Crowds
In order to understand the purposes of this article, I ask that you the spend about 25 to 30 minutes answering the following true-false questions. For the answer to be true, it simply means most of the time, not all the time. For the answer to be false, it just means it rarely happens, not never happens. Follow your answer with a one sentence justification. Feel free to draw from your experience as well as what you've read. It is important to answer quickly and spontaneously and not dwell on the answers. One purpose of the questionnaire is to see if you think there are any significant differences between how people in crowds behave (collective behavior) as opposed to how small groups or individuals behave.
Here are the True - False questions:
- Most crowds consist of strangers, rather than family, friends or acquaintances.
- The percentage of violent behavior is higher in crowds than in small groups such as a musical band or a baseball team.
- The behavior of crowds is more likely to be unanimous than the behavior of small groups.
- Crowds of people are more likely to engage in unusual or extraordinary behaviors than either groups or individuals.
- The behavior of individuals and small groups is more likely to be rational than the behavior of a crowd, which is more likely to be
- There are certain kinds of personalities that are drawn to crowds that you could predict would join a crowd if you knew enough about their personalities.
- There is a disproportionately higher number of working-class people in crowds compared to other social classes.
- Compared to people without legal convictions, there is a higher percentage of criminals in crowds.
- Individuals and small groups that are more likely to deliberate and plan their actions are less likely to be spontaneous.
- You could predict that most individuals are more likely to lose their personal identity in a crowd rather than alone or in small groups.
- Emotions are more likely to spread by contagions in a crowd rather than in a small group.
- Groups are easier to disperse than crowds because people in crowds want to linger longer.
- There has been more research done on crowds than on groups because the behavior in crowds has greater social impact.
- People conform less to norms in crowds than they do in groups or as individuals.
- Most violence in crowds is caused by the participants in the crowd rather than the police.
- There is a higher degree of unpredictability of behavior in crowds than there is in small groups or within an individual.
- The goals of a crowd are more extreme and unconventional than the goals of groups or individuals.
- Riots are equally likely to happen regardless of the season of the year.
- The most typical reaction to a natural disaster or emotional shock is panic - that is, uncontrolled individualistic flight as opposed to a rational, deliberate response.
- There is a correlation between which people will engage in a protest and their political beliefs before the protests.
- The most likely group to join a movement is the group who has absolute deprivation of resources as opposed to relative deprivation or no deprivation.
The last three questions are about mass behavior, not crowd behavior:
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