"...I was participating in a truly significant historic event...a consensus had been reached as to the supreme value of the human person, a value that did not originate in the decision of a worldly power, but rather in the fact of existing -- which gave rise to the inalienable right to live free from want and oppression and to fully develop one's personality. There was an atmosphere of genuine solidarity and brotherhood among men and women from all latitudes, the like of which I have not seen again in any international setting...."
Hernan Santa Cruz, Chilean member of the drafting committee, 1948
There was real hope after the second world war that the human atrocities perpetuated during the second world war (1940-1945) would never occur again...by law. The unanimous adoption (with some abstentions) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights also heralded a new era of optimism and a kind of enlightened attitude (inspired by Eleanor Roosevelt), in which the United Nations would settle disputes and the USA was the new world leader, liberal, freedom loving and different from any empire that bit the dust before a wave of optimism.
Today the actual force of the content of this declaration has been falling by the wayside. Although the words "human rights" are frequently used in newspapers of stature, thanks to Bush and his cronies Cheney and Rumsfeld, torture -- perhaps the most comprehensive transgression of human rights -- has become a way of war and a career for many. Extra judicial killings perpetuated by the presidency of Obama, and facilitated by drone warfare are now a commonplace, almost daily occurrence. Hardly anyone raises an eyebrow that once more we are ruled by bloodthirsty murderers parading in civilian clothes, who know most certainly that the attorney general of the USA will not prosecute.
However, let there be no doubt: crimes against humanity do exist and violations of human rights are crimes. One day, heinous acts will once more be recognized as heinous crimes. With 7 billion of us, justice can no longer just be a matter of brute power if humanity wants to have a future at all. Treaty law actually surpasses national law -- it is the supreme law of the land. It is up to us to give it teeth.
Hopefully, this document will come alive for us and become a useful tool in challenging the injustices we are facing globally now, including assaults on our own liberty and the ability to express ourselves. What are our rights? Only if we know the answer to that, can we move from warfare to "lawfare." We will see this move in many areas that are increasingly intertwined with human rights such as issues of global warming, nuclear proliferation, mining, poverty, health, economic development, education, employment, inequality, etc. This new framing of the issues in the light of human rights, gives impetus also for action.
- Right to Equality
- Freedom from discrimination
- Right to life, liberty and personal security
- Freedom from slavery
- Freedom from torture and degrading treatment
- Right to recognition as a person before the law
- Right to equality before the law
- Right to remedy by competent tribunal
- Freedom from arbitrary arrest and exile
- Right to fair public hearing
- Right to be considered innocent until proven guilty
- Freedom from interference with privacy, family, home and correspondence
- Right to free movement in and out of the country
- Right to asylum in other countries from persecution
- Right to a nationality and freedom to change nationality
- Right to marriage and family
- Right to own property
- Freedom of belief and religion
- Freedom of opinion and information
- Right to peaceful assembly and association
- Right to participate in government and in free elections
- Right to social security
- Right to desirable work and to join trade unions
- Right to rest and leisure
- Right to adequate living standard
- Right to education
- Right to participate in the cultural life of community
- Right to a social order that articulates this document
- Community duties essential to free and full development
- Freedom from state or personal interference in the above rights