A good amount of documentation on the involvement of psychologists in the torture and abuse of detainees or "terror suspects." And, a new study provides even more revelations on the involvement of physicians making it increasingly clear that medical professionals put limits on ethical standards they were expected to follow in order to help the CIA interrogate detainees.
The study, titled "Roles of CIA Physicians in Enhanced Interrogation and Torture of Detainees," authored by Leonard S. Rubinstein, the president of Physicians for Human Rights, and Brigadier General (ret.) Stephen N. Xenakis, a former Army psychiatrists (who is now with the Center for Public Health and Human Rights), utilizes a previously secret document from 2004 and lays out the "guidelines for detainee interrogation" that physicians, psychologists, and other health care professionals developed and followed so they could serve the CIA.
Guidelines indicate the doctors, who were working for the CIA's Office of Medical Services, conducted medical evaluations [experimentations] on detainees "before and during interrogations" and waterboarding "required the presence of a physician."
Physicians documented the effects of "enhanced interrogation techniques" [torture] like waterboarding and decided waterboarding "created risks of drowning, hypothermia, aspiration pneumonia, or laryngospasm." They ignored "clinical experience/research" and assured lawyers "there was no "medical reason' to believe that waterboarding [would] lead to physical pain."
It was established that "cramped confinement could result in deep vein thrombosis" and death could result from "lengthy exposure to cold water." And, the physicians, psychologists, and other health care professionals working for the CIA developed "limitations" so that techniques like waterboarding, cramped confinement, sensory deprivation, stress positions, etc could be used on detainees.
Limitations included: "exposure to specified temperature either up to time of hypothermia would develop or on evidence of hypothermia," dietary restrictions up to "body weight loss of 10% or evidence of significant malnutrition," "exposure to noise just under decibel levels associated with hearing loss," up to 48 hours of exposure to stress positions "provided hands were no higher than the head" of a detainee, and no more than eight consecutive hours or eighteen hours per day of "confinement in a box."
Much of this took place after 2003, after a CIA Inspector General investigation of "enhanced interrogation techniques" [torture], OMS physicians were asked to provide "opinions to the agency and lawyers on whether techniques used would be expected to cause severe pain or suffering and thus constitute torture." Slowly, OMS physicians' work for the CIA transformed into work, which violated "ethical standards," prohibiting physicians from using "medical skills to facilitate torture or be present when torture is taking place."
The physicians consulted directly with Department of Justice lawyers and were asked to provide legal cover by supporting "legal decisions" that "interrogators who applied enhanced interrogation techniques neither inflicted sever mental or physical pain or anguish and thus did not commit torture." For techniques like sleep deprivation, they claimed the use thereof "could not lead to profound disruption in the detainees' senses or personality (the legal definition of psychological torture)."
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