David Martin's Thirteen Rules for Truth Suppression, H. Michael Sweeney's 25 Rules of Disinformation (and now Brandon Smith's Disinformation: How It Works) are classic lessons on how to spot disruption and disinformation tactics.
We've seen a number of tactics come and go over the years. Here are the ones we see a lot of currently.
1. Start a partisan divide-and-conquer fight or otherwise push emotional buttons to sow discord and ensure that cooperation is thwarted. Get people fighting against each other instead of the corrupt powers-that-be. Use baseless caricatures to rile everyone up. For example, start a religious war whenever possible using stereotypes like "all Jews are selfish", "all Christians are crazy" or "all Muslims are terrorists". Accuse the author of being a gay, pro-abortion limp-wristed wimp or being a fundamentalist pro-war hick when the discussion has nothing to do with abortion, sexuality, religion, war or region. Appeal to people's basest prejudices and biases. And -- as Sweeney explains -- push the author into a defensive posture:
Sidetrack opponents with name calling and ridicule " Associate opponents with unpopular titles such as "kooks", "right-wing", "liberal", "left-wing", "terrorists", "conspiracy buffs", "radicals", "militia", "racists", "religious fanatics", "sexual deviates", and so forth. This makes others shrink from support out of fear of gaining the same label, and you avoid dealing with issues.
2. Pretend it's hopeless because we'll be squashed if we try. For example, every time a whistleblower leaks information, say "he's going to be bumped off". If people talk about protesting, organizing, boycotting, shareholder activism, spreading the real facts, moving our money or taking other constructive action, write things to scare and discourage people, say something like "we don't have any chance because they have drones and they'll just kill us if we try", or "Americans are too stupid, lazy and greedy, so they'll never help out." Encourage people to be apathetic instead of trying to change things.
3. Demand complete, fool-proof and guaranteed solutions to the problems being discussed. For example, if a reporter breaks the story that the big banks conspired to rig a market, ask "given that people are selfish and that no regulation can close all possible loopholes " how are you going to change human nature?", and pretend that it's not worth talking about the details of the market manipulation. This discourages people from reporting on and publicizing the corruption, fraud and other real problems. And it ensures that not enough people will spread the facts so that the majority know what's really going on.
4. Suggest extreme, over-the-top, counter-productive solutions which will hurt more than help, or which are wholly disproportionate to what is being discussed. For example, if the discussion is whether or not to break up the big banks or to go back on the gold standard, say that everyone over 30 should be killed because they are sell-outs and irredeemable, or that all of the banks should be bombed. This discredits the attempt to spread the facts and to organize, and is simply the web method of the provocateur.
5. Pretend that alternative media -- such as blogs written by the top experts in their fields, without any middleman -- are untrustworthy or are motivated solely by money (for example, use the derogatory term "blogspam" for any blog posting, pretending that there is no original or insightful reporting, but that the person is simply doing it for ad revenue).
6. Coordinate with a couple of others to "shout down" reasonable comments. This is especially effective when the posters launch an avalanche of comments in quick succession " the original, reasonable comment gets lost or attacked so much that it is largely lost.
7. Use an army of sock puppets. You can either hire low-wage workers in India or other developing countries to "astroturf" or -- if you work for the government -- you can use hire military personnel and subcontractors to monitor social media and "correct" information which you don't like (and see this), or use software which allows you to quickly create and alternate between numerous false identities, each with their own internet address.
9. When the powers-that-be cut corners and take criminally reckless gambles with our lives and our livelihoods, protect them by pretending that the inevitable result - nuclear accidents, financial crises, terrorist attacks or other disasters -- were "unforeseeable" and that "no could have known".
10. Protect the rich and powerful by labeling any allegations of criminal activity as being a "conspiracy theory". For example, when Goldman gets caught rigging markets, label the accusations as mere conspiracies.
The following 4 tactics from Sweeney are also still commonly used "