Readings for the 24th Sunday in Ordinary Time: Is. 50:5-9a; Ps. 116: 1-6, 8-9; Jas. 2: 14-18; Mk. 8:27-35
Presently, I'm reading again John Dominic Crossan's brilliant book on Jesus' resistance to empire. It's called God & Empire: Jesus Against Rome, Then and Now. As described on its jacket, the book's thesis is that "at the heart of the bible is a moral and ethical call to fight unjust superpowers, whether they are Babylon, Rome, or even America."
Since it is about empire, this Sunday's Gospel selection is directly related to Crossan's thesis. In fact, the selection addresses Jesus' non-violent and hugely ignored resistance to Rome. It includes his call for us to join him in resisting empire's inherent evil, while nevertheless refusing to employ violence in doing so.
Though most who preach this week probably won't say so, that's the real focus of today's Gospel. Its key elements are (1) Jesus' harsh words to Simon Peter, (2) his self-identification as the anti-imperial "Son of Man," and (3) his insistence that his followers oppose empire non-violently no matter what the cost.
For starters, take Jesus' harsh words to Simon Peter. He's impatient with the man, and in effect tells Peter to go to hell. (That's the meaning of his words, "Get behind me, Satan.")
Why does he speak to Peter like that? To answer that question, you have to understand on the one hand who Peter is, and on the other the claimed identity of Jesus.
Simon was likely a Zealot. Zealots were fighters in the Jewish resistance movement against the Roman occupation of Palestine. They were committed to expelling the Roman occupiers from Palestine by force of armed violence.
What I'm pointing out is that many scholars strongly suspect that Simon Peter was a Zealot. For one thing, he was armed when Jesus was arrested. His armed status (even after three years in Jesus' company!) also raises the possibility that he may have been a sicarius (knifer) -- one among the Zealots who specialized in assassinating Roman soldiers.
Notice how quick Simon was to actually use his sword; he was evidently used to knife-fighting. In John 18:10, he tries to split the head of one of those who had come to arrest Jesus. However, his blow misses only slicing off the intended victim's ear. Put that together with Simon's nom de guerre, "Peter" which arguably meant "rock-thrower," and you have a strong case for Peter's zealotry.
In any case, when Jesus asks Peter "Who do you say that I am?" Peter's response, "You are the Messiah" means "You're the one who will lead us in expelling the hated Romans from this country by force of arms." (That's what "messiah" meant for first century Jews.)
Now consider where Jesus is coming from. (This is the second key element of today's Gospel.) As today's text shows, his primary identification was not with "messiah," but with a particular understanding of the "Son of Man." The latter is a figure taken from the Book of Daniel which was written in resistance to the Seleucid empire of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the Greek sovereign who oppressed the Jews in the 2nd century BCE.
Daniel presents the Son of Man (or the Human One as some translate it) as the opponent and conqueror of all Israel's oppressors from the Babylonians, through the Medes, Persians and Greeks. However, as Crossan and others show, Jesus' opposition to empire remained non-violent.
Jesus reveals this crucial distinction, for instance, in the full form of his famous declaration before Pilate, "My kingdom is not of this world" (JN 18:36). In its complete form, the quotation runs, "My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered" up to execution. These words contrast the nature of Jesus' non-violent kingdom founded on justice with that of Pilate's extremely violent Rome founded on injustice.
So, Jesus' rebuke to Peter might be translated: "Look, like you and the Human One Daniel wrote about, I'm as much an enemy of foreign occupation as any good Jew. However, unlike you, I'm not going to be part of killing my Roman brothers and sisters who share our humanity. Yes, I'm saying that the Romans and 'our' Temple collaborators are our brothers and sisters! Killing them is like killing ourselves. It's even like trying to kill God. So, I won't be introducing the glorious Israel you're thinking about. It's just the opposite; the Romans will actually end up torturing and killing me! But I'm willing to accept that."