Israel's Military Industries Ltd. manufactures them. Israel's Orr Commission investigated excessive force in October 2000. It was the beginning of the second Intifada.
It largely blamed Israeli security forces. It said Israel should "act to erase the stain of discrimination against Arab citizens in all its various forms and expression."
It prohibited rubber-coated bullets use inside Israel. Military commanders use them inside its borders and throughout the Territories with impunity.
It's a popular weapon of choice. It's powerful enough to cause serious injuries or death. Firing them at close range is especially harmful.
Skunk is a foul-smelling liquid. It's sprayed from truck-mounted water cannons. The odor is offensive enough to get demonstrators to back off.
It doesn't wash off easily. It stays on clothes for years. Experts disagree on whether Chemical Weapons Convention provisions imply prohibition. CWC bans toxic riot control agents in warfare.
Civilian riot control use raises disturbing questions. Toxicity isn't limited to lethality. Skunk water is physiologically harmful. It enters homes and stays. Elderly and ill civilians are most vulnerable.
B'Tselem criticized Israel's crowd control methods, saying: