The Islamic Fundamentalism, to which three percent Muslims adhere, has been described as "highly politicized religious ideology popularized in the 20th century through movements within both the Shi'a and Sunni branches of Islam--characterized by aggressiveness and a reformist attitude toward traditional Islam." The authors include in this category the followers of the Muslim Brotherhood or Al Ikhwan Al Muslimeen, Wahabis or Salafis as well as the adherents of the "revolutionary Shi'a ideology" of the late Imam Khomeini of Iran.
Islamic modernism is described as a reform movement that started in the 19th century by politically-minded western-educated Muslims who had "scant knowledge of traditional Islam." They blamed the technological weakness of the Muslim world on the 'traditional Islam' and called for a complete overhaul of Islam, particularly the Islamic law (sharia) and doctrine (aqida).
After setting in the broad outlines of the project the authors divided the 500 personalities into 15 categories: Scholarly, Political, Administrative, Lineage, Preachers, Women, Youth, Philanthropy, Development, Science and Technology, Arts and Culture, Media, Radicals, International Islamic Networks and Issues of the Day.
Let us analyze the first 50 most influential Muslims which are profiled in detail in the list that includes Muslim rulers, two elected leaders, sect leaders, scholars, well-known Muslim religious leaders (Ulema) as well as a lay preacher.