Italy's Secret Army
In researching right-wing terrorism, Judge Felice Casson discovered them, their link to the political right, and examples of their lawlessness. One instance was in 1972 when a car bomb killed three Carabinieri, Italy's parliamentary police, wrongly blamed on the Red Brigades like for other attacks carried out by extremist anti-communist groups, blamed on the left.
Right wing terrorist Vincenzo Vinciguerra was later charged with the Carabinieri killings, explaining at his 1984 trial that Italy's security apparatus supported his crimes, saying:
"There exists in Italy a secret force parallel to the armed forces, composed of civilians and military men, in an anti-Soviet capacity; that is, to organize a resistance on Italian soil against a Russian army."
In fact, he revealed Gladio and its link to terrorism without naming it, calling it "a secret organization, a super-organization with a network of communications, arms, and explosives, and men trained to use them."
A 2000 parliamentary investigation concluded that operatives "linked to the structures of United States intelligence" were involved in bombings, massacres, and other terrorist attacks as part of a campaign against the political left. In 2001, General Giandelio Maletti, former Italian counterintelligence head, confirmed CIA's involvement to "do anything to stop Italy from sliding to the left."
Turkey's Secret Armies
During the Cold War, Turkey guarded a third of NATO's borders with Warsaw Pact countries. Its "Counter-Guerrilla" secret army carried out some of the most sensitive missions, under the command of Turkish special forces to "organize resistance in case of a communist occupation."