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(2) As a disciplinary measure:
Punitive isolation can be for whatever reasons authorities wish or none at all. Prisoners are held in small cells 24 hours a day with only a bed or mattress on the floor.
(3) Prolonged isolation:
Called "separation," it's for prisoners posing an alleged threat to others interned or threatened by them, or have mental problems severe enough to threaten other inmates.
Mezan et al's report focuses on this type of isolation.
As of December 2010, Israel held about 150 prisoners in solitary confinement, 120 sentenced, the others awaiting it. About two-thirds were held alone, the others with another prisoner. Some have been isolated for years. About 40 are Palestinians.
According to Article 19B of Israel's Prison Ordinance, "separation" isolation is a last resort. However, Israel's Combating Criminal Organization's Law permits it for disciplinary reasons, to prevent violations to prison rules, or for a violent offense.
Keeping inmates isolated for over six months requires district court approval, renewed every six months indefinitely. As a result, prisoners may remain in solitary confinement for years.