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Understanding the Orange Revolution: Ukraine's Democratization in the Russian Mirror

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2 Valentin Yakushik, "Prognoz razvitiia politicheskoi situatsii v Ukraine," Evraziiskii dom, n. D., http://www.eurasianhome.org/xml/t/expert.xml?lang=ru&nic=expert&pid=22; Ingmar Bredies, "'Staatszerfall' in der Ukraine? Ursachen und Konsequenzen der gegenwärtigen Krise," Ukraine-Analysen, 22 (2007): 2-3, click here; Andreas Umland, "Im Zickzack gen Europa: Zur Rolle der jungsten Wahlen fur die Nationalstaatsbildung und Demokratisierung der Ukraine," Ukraine-Analysen, 29 (2007): 6-7, click here

3 Harry Eckstein, "Case Study and Theory in Political Science," in: Fred I. Greenstein and Nelson W. Polsby, eds., Handbook of Political Science (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley 1975).

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4 Obviously, the following critique does not apply to Russia's considerable community of serious political scientists who mostly have a balanced approach to recent Ukrainian history and critical view of current Russian affairs. See, for instance, Vladimir Ya. Gel'man, "Iz ognia da v polymia? Dinamika postsovetskikh rezhimov v sravnitel'noi perspektive," Politicheskie issledovaniia, no. 2 (2007): 81-108; Igor' Kliamkin and Tat'iana Kutkovets, "Kremlevskaia shkola politologii: Dekonstruktsiia kremlevskogo diskursa," Kontinent, no. 131 (2007): 145-175.

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5 I -- like other Western commentators of recent post-Soviet affairs probably too -- have been repeatedly identified as an oranzhevyi by Russian "patriotic" or Ukrainian pro-Russian commentators. E.g. Ivan Burtsev, "Politicheskii antifashistkii ekstaz?" Obratnaia storona, 23 July 2007, http://stolin1969.narod.ru/230707.html. While I would not call myself this way, I am prepared to bear this badge. However, one of my few publications on Ukrainian high politics was not exactly an advertisement for Viktor Yushchenko's "Orange" team, but rather portrayed the political managers of Nasha UkrainaThe Moscow Times, 10 April 2007, p. 10, http://sptimesrussia.com/index.php?action_id=2&story_id=21310. The article became the subject of an attack by the notorious webcampaigner La Russophobe who reported that, in it, I had "spewed forth a disgusting torrent of anti-Yuschenko propaganda" -- a characterization that would seem to tarnisch my reputation as an oranzhevyi. See N.N., "Annals of Russophile Gibberish," La Russophobe, 11 April 2007, click here in 2005-2007 as a bunch of loosers. See Andreas Umland, "Yushchenko's Big Gamble,"

6 Vladimir Frolov, "Democracy by Remote Control," Russia in Global Affairs, no. 4 (2005), http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/numbers/13/976.html.

7 See, for instance, the monograph by a Doctor of Science in Chemistry who has, like a whole number of similar publicists, made himself a name, in Russia in recent years, by publishing pamphlets devoted to uncovering the West's "true" intentions on the territory of the former USSR: Sergei Kara-Murza, Revoliutsii na eksport (Moskva: Algoritm 2005). Or, see the collected volume edited by a Russian politician who had, for a period of time, been declared persona non grataNa fone "oranzhevoi revoliutsii." Ukraina mezhdu Vostokom i Zapadom: vchera, segodnia, zavtra (Moskva: Institut stran SNG 2005). See also Mikhail Pogrebinsky, ed., Oranzhevaia revoliutsiia: Versii, khronika, dokumenty (Kiev: Optima 2005). by the Ukrainian government: Konstantin F. Zatulin, ed.,

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8 E.g.: Paul D'Anieri and Taras Kuzio, eds., Aspects of the Orange Revolution I: Democratization and Elections in Post-Soviet Ukraine. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 63 (Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag 2007); Bohdan Harasymiw in collaboration with Oleh S. Ilnytzkyj, eds., Aspects of the Orange Revolution II: Information and Manipulation Strategies in the 2004 Ukrainian Presidential Elections. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 64 (Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag 2007); Ingmar Bredies, Andreas Umland and Valentin Yakushik, eds., Aspects of the Orange Revolution III: The Context and Dynamics of the 2004 Ukrainian Presidential Elections. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 65 (Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag 2007); Ingmar Bredies, Andreas Umland and Valentin Yakushik, eds., Aspects of the Orange Revolution IV: Foreign Assistance and Civic Action in the 2004 Ukrainian Presidential Elections. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 66 (Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag 2007); Ingmar Bredies, Andreas Umland and Valentin Yakushik, eds., Aspects of the Orange Revolution IV: Institutional Observation Reports on the 2004 Ukrainian Presidential Elections. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 67 (Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag 2007); Taras Kuzio, ed., Aspects of the Orange Revolution VI: Post-Communist Democratic Revolutions in Comparative Perspective. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 68 (Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag 2007).

9 As indicated in the official biographical note on Frolov at his company's website: http://www.leffgroup.ru/about/experts1.

10 Taras Kuzio, "Russian Policy toward Ukraine during the Elections," Demokratizatsiya, 13, 4 (2005): 491-517.

11 Andreas Umland and Ingmar Bredies, "'Raspil' Kievskoi Rusi," The New Times (Moscow), no. 52 (2008): 38, http://newtimes.ru/magazine/issue_52/article_16.htm; idem, "Democratic Ukraine, autocratic Russia: Why?" Kyiv Post, 18 August 2009, http://www.kyivpost.com/opinion/47102.

12 For an interesting facet of this difference -- youth activism in both countries -- see Viktoriya Topalova, "In Search of Heroes: Cultural Politics and Political Mobilization of Youths in Contemporary Russia and Ukraine," Demokratizatsiya, vol. 14, no. 1 (2006): 23-41, and Taras Kuzio, "Ukraine is not Russia: Comparing Youth Political Activism," SAIS Review, vol. 26, no. 2 (2006): 67-83;.

13 For a German language survey of the various Western democracy promotion programs in Ukraine, see my paper, "Westliche Förderprogramme in der Ukraine: Einblicke in die europäisch-nordamerikanische Unterstutzung ukrainischer Reformbestrebungen seit 1991," Forschungsstelle Osteuropa Bremen: Arbeitspapiere und Materialien, no. 63 (2004), http://se2.isn.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=10&fileid=D092944E-F352-DC1A-CF4E-3CEFBC401E94&lng=de.

14 Andreas Schedler, Electoral Authoritarianism: The Dynamics of Unfree Competition (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner 2006).

15 Andrew Wilson, Virtual Politics: Faking Democracy in the Post-Soviet World (New Haven/London: Yale University Press 2005). See also idem, "Ukraine's New Virtual Politics," East European Constitutional Review, vol. 10, nos. 2-3 (2001): 60-66.

16 See the review essay by Taras Kuzio, "Ukraine's Orange Revolution: Rush to Judgement?" Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, vol. 23, no. 2 (2007): 320-326.

17 Andrew Wilson, Ukraine's Orange Revolution (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press 2005). See also idem, "Ukraine's Orange Revolution, NGOs and the Role of the West," Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 19, no. 1 (2006): 21-32.

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============================================================================== Andreas Umland, CertTransl (Leipzig), MA (Stanford), MPhil (Oxford), DipPolSci, DrPhil (FU Berlin), PhD (Cambridge). Visiting fellow at Stanford's Hoover Institution (more...)

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