The 70.5 per cent support for Gorbachev's question was not unexpected, but the Ukrainian question received an even higher 80.2 percent, and 88.4 percent voted for independence in Galicia".-Ukraine: Perestroika to Independence Second Edition Taras Kuzio
According to Kuzio, because of the high percentages of all the answers across the referendum, supporters of every question could claim victory.
One of these three questions represents the conditions that Ukrainians seceded from the Soviet Union with. Since the first two never made it out of the gate, Ukraine as a sovereign government had a social contract based on the response to the third question. This should go down in the history books as the "Great Galician lie."
According to Ukrainian Nationalist scholar, Taras Kuzio quoting Melnyk the head of the UNA executive, the whole matter of independence wasn't settled by by democratic forces wanting independence. It was in fact support for authoritarianism and nationalism decided by the higher organs of power in Ukraine. Kravchuk was chosen as president based on his hatred for democracy and Russian democracy in particular. RADICAL NATIONALIST PARTIES AND MOVEMENTS IN CONTEMPORARY UKRAINE BEFORE AND AFTER INDEPENDENCE: THE RIGHT AND ITS POLITICS, 1989-1994 Taras Kuzio
Who were the "higher organs of power in Ukraine" that could ignore the Ukrainian people and decide on their behalf?
Once again Taras Kuzio sheds light not only on this but how the road to the Maidan coup and the current civil war was paved. These higher organs of power, for the most part, had never even been to Ukraine. Their family never lived in a country called Ukraine. They make up the Ukrainian emigre leadership. He states that Ukrainian emigres tend to be from Western Ukraine and are more "nationally conscious" and politically radical.
Going further he states that the emigre groups have considerable political influence, are well financed, and have had a strong impact on domestic Ukrainian politics since 1988. Because of this, it has never been a matter of "who" was controlling Ukraine, but what direction they wanted to go in.
The Ukrainian nationalist movement had been divided between a messianic element (OUNb) which would enforce its beliefs using force and OUNm which played down the nationalist cultural card and tried to appeal to the south and east economically to transcend the regional divide.
In Donbass, the OUNm tactic worked. By promising to raise economic conditions so they would be livable, they got the miners support. This was the game changer for them. At the same time, they already made the decision that Donbass would be paying for the costs of independence and reform at an inordinate rate. This would happen by dropping wages and living conditions across Donbass and taking the wealth from the industrial region after it was too late to turn back.
Ukrainian Freedom ended up being one of the greatest bait and switch games ever played. Like I said it's the "great Galician lie."
Who was at the head of the Ukrainian diaspora? This is an interesting question because leadership revolved around small groups of people no matter how many groups you look at, political affiliations, or the connections you make in Ukraine, Europe, or America.
From 1986- 2003 the leader of the OUNb was Slava Stetsko. Stetsko gained the mantle from her husband who died in 1986, Yaroslav Stetsko. He was the right hand to Stepan Bandera. Stetsko is the only Axis WWII leader who can claim eventual victory over the Allies even though this trio were responsible for the first Holocaust of WWII. It was the mass execution of over 30,000 Jews at Babi Yar. They starved 3 million war prisoners to death in Ukraine. They tortured and murdered close to million Ukrainians. And they were never tried in court for these crimes.
Instead, they financed the radicalization of Ukraine and radical political parties starting before 1989. The biggest influence proved to be bringing back OUNb children groups from the Diaspora. These children groups were still labeled by the CIA as Bandera terrorist groups until the 1980's. During WWII they planted bombs and murdered civilians that disagreed with Nazi ideology.
In far-flung Nazi strongholds like New York, Boston, Stamford, Philadelphia, and Geelong, Australia emigre kids are still taught that Stepan Bandera is a saint to be worshiped and a perfect person that they need to model their lives after. This same Bandera, who committed the crimes listed above strangled cats for fun as a child. Having a sado/masochist bent, he was often found at school torturing himself by slamming his own hand in a door, over and over.
Bandera ordered his followers to rape, torture, and murder; men, women, and children as a sign of heroism and dedication to the cause of his nationalism. This is why it is so prevalent today with the Ukrainian volunteer battalions like Pravy Sector, Azov, Donbas, Kiev Rus, or Aidar.- When Nazi Hands Rock American Cradles GH Eliason
Even Ukrainian state symbolism which was given by the emigres celebrates this today by integrating the 3 prong pitch fork (trident- 3 tooth) as the national symbol for Ukraine. In WWII, the 3 prong pitchfork was a favorite tool for murder and torture by Bandera's OUNb and they found it especially useful when used on small children as a torture for parents.