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How Evangelical Christians risk setting the Middle East on fire

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The cliff above the Jezreel Valley where Joshua and his disciples congregated offers views over Tel Megiddo, the modern name of the biblical site of Armageddon, where many evangelicals believe the end of the world will soon happen.

Speeding up the second coming

These Christians are not simply observers of an unfolding divine plan; they are active participants trying to bring the end-times closer.

In fact, the traumas of the Israel-Palestine conflict the decades of bloodshed, violent colonisation and expulsions of Palestinians cannot be understood separately from the interference of Western Christian leaders in the Middle East over the past century. In many ways, they engineered the Israel we know today.

The first Zionists, after all, were not Jews, but Christians. A vigorous Christian Zionist movement known then as "restorationism" emerged in the early 19th century, predating and heavily influencing its subsequent Jewish counterpart.

The restorationists' peculiar reading of the Bible meant that they believed the Messiah's second coming could be accelerated if God's chosen people, the Jews, returned to the Promised Land after 2,000 years of a supposed exile.

Charles Taze Russell, a US pastor from Pennsylvania, travelled the world from the 1870s onwards imploring Jews to establish a national home for themselves in what was then Palestine. He even produced a plan for how a Jewish state might be created there.

He did so nearly 20 years before the Jewish Viennese journalist Theodor Herzl published his famous book outlining a Jewish state.

The secular Herzl didn't much care where such a Jewish state was built. But his later followers deeply aware of the hold of Christian Zionism in western capitals focused their attention on Palestine, the biblical Promised Land, in the hope of winning powerful allies in Europe and the US.

Rallying cry for Herzl's followers

Imperial Britain's support was especially prized. In 1840, Lord Shaftesbury, who was connected through marriage to Lord Palmerston, a later prime minister, published an advert in the London Times urging the return of Jews to Palestine.

Christian Zionism was an important factor influencing the British government in 1917 to issue the Balfour Declaration effectively a promissory note from Britain that became the blueprint for creating a Jewish state on the ruins of the native population's homeland.

Writing of the declaration, Israeli historian Tom Segev has observed: "The men who sired it were Christian and Zionist and, in many cases, anti-Semitic." That was because Christian Zionism took as its premise that Jews should not integrate into their own countries. Rather, they should serve as instruments of God's will, moving to the Middle East so that Christians could achieve redemption.

Edwin Montagu was the only British cabinet minister to oppose the Balfour Declaration, and he was also its sole Jewish member. He warned for good reason that the document would "prove a rallying ground for anti-Semites in every country in the world".

'Struggle until the Rapture'

While Jewish Zionists looked to the imperial powerhouse of Britain for sponsorship a century ago, today, their chief patron is the US. The standard-bearers of Christian Zionism have been enjoying growing influence in Washington since the Six-Day War of 1967.

That process has reached its apotheosis under President Donald Trump. He has surrounded himself with a mix of extreme Jewish and Christian Zionists. His ambassador to Israel, David Friedman, and Middle East envoy, Jason Greenblatt, are fervent Jewish supporters of the illegal settlements. But so too, it seems, are key Christians in the White House, such as Vice President Mike Pence and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.

Before he entered government, Pompeo was clear about his evangelical beliefs. Back in 2015, he told a congregation: "It is a never-ending struggle " until the Rapture. Be part of it. Be in the fight."

This past March, he backed the idea that Trump might have been sent by God to save Israel from threats such as Iran. "I am confident that the Lord is at work here," he told the Christian Broadcasting Network.

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Jonathan Cook is a writer and journalist based in Nazareth, Israel. He is the 2011 winner of the Martha Gellhorn Special Prize for Journalism. His latest books are "Israel and the Clash of Civilisations: Iraq, Iran and the Plan to Remake the Middle East" (Pluto Press) and "Disappearing Palestine: (more...)
 

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