He said that in the 1904 - 05 Russo-Japanese War, typhoid vaccinations weren't used. Instead, for almost the first time, modern, effective sanitation and hygiene practices were employed, and few soldiers experienced typhoid fever. But in the WW I Gallipoli campaign, English soldiers got typhoid vaccinations. Unsanitary conditions prevailed, and many succumbed to typhoid and other infectious diseases. In 1918 under conditions of poor sanitation for US forces, vaccinations proved ineffective in preventing "a high death-rate among the well vaccinated men."
On March 28, 1919, an official report from the Chief Surgeon of the AEF in the US Public Health was titled, "Typhoid Vaccination no Substitute for Sanitary Precautions."
Higgins quoted medical authorities admitting vaccination dangers and condemning their mandatory use. The 1913 edition of Osler's "Modern Medicine," Volume I stated:
"With the greatest care, however, certain (vaccination) risks are present and so it is unwise for the physician to force the operation upon those who are unwilling, or to give assurance of absolute harmlessness."
In 1889, the English Commission on Vaccination exhaustively studied the issue, published its findings in 1896, concluded that vaccinations were dangerous, and said laws making them compulsory should be repealed or modified. An enacted "conscientious clause" subsequently let parents exempt their children. Yet, contrary to fears at the time, smallpox greatly declined because of improved sanitation and good hygiene practices.
As early as the mid-19th century, books about vaccine dangers included Dr. Charles Schieferdecker's "Dr. CGG Nittinger's evils of vaccination" (1856), William Tebb's "Sanitation, not Vaccination the True Protection against Small-Pox" (1881), William White's "The Story of a Great Delusion" (1885), Alfred Russel Wallace's "Vaccination Proved Useless & Dangerous" (1889), Dr. Tenison Deane's "The Crime of Vaccination" (1913), and many others.
In his book, Higgins referred to vaccinations as the cause of "great epidemics of deadly disease in animals and mankind...." and cited government reports he called "notorious public facts."
"In October, November, and December, 1901, (a tetanus epidemic occurred) after vaccination(s were administered) in Camden, Philadelphia, and to a certain extent in near-by towns." Higgins wrote the Secretary of War citing proof "that there was a distinct medical and logical relation between influenza and vaccination, and that many serious diseases, including smallpox and cowpox, commence like influenza...."