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American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass, by Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton (1998)*

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"Urban Apartheid":

In the context of apartheid in South Africa, urban apartheid was a component of the apartheid system and referred to "the spatial separation of the four racial groups according to the Population Registration Act of 1950 into group areas according to the Group Areas Act of 1950."[9]

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Outside of South Africa, the term "urban apartheid" has also come to refer to ghettoization of minority populations in cities within particular suburbs or neighbourhoods. The term has been used in France to describe the situation of largely impoverished Muslim immigrants being concentrated in particular suburban housing projects and being provided with an inferior standard of infrastructure and social services.[10]. The issue of Urban apartheid in France was highlighted in the aftermath of the 2005 civil unrest in France.[11].


(Author's note: At Wikipedia, there is no suggestion under "urban apartheid" that the condition exists in either the United States or Israel)

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"How could I fail to speak with difficulty? I have new things to say." I graduated from Stanford Law School in 1966 but have never practiced. Instead, I dropped back five years and joined The Movement, but it wasn't until the 1970's that I (more...)

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