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Biological Warfare in Korea: A Review of the Literature

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105 John W. Powell, "Crime Against Humanity," China Monthly Review (CWR), March 1952, p.227, "Yet, between the middle of December 1950 and January 1951, smallpox cases were registered simultaneously in a number of districts from seven to eight days after their liberation from American occupation. The number of cases rapidly mounted and in April 1951 exceeded 3500, of which 10 percent were fatal. In districts not occupied by [US] troops, there were no smallpox cases."

106 Jeffery Kaye expresses a cautionary note in the attribution of BW attacks. "I believe we need to be careful in imputing BW attacks, as I am sure that disinformation is put out there to discredit critics. We should remember that the ISC found some samples of supposed germ warfare items that did not pan out. In fact, it is a sign of their professionalism that some samples would be falsified, given the nature of gathering data in general there is always error."""I believe there is also a psychological component to weaponry, especially weapons which terrorize, like BW."""I think that some insects were dropped by the US in Korea and China that deliberately did not have biological agents attached. (I am thinking here primarily of springtails (houseflies) whose presence so flummoxed Needham, and only in one instance actually seemed to carry any bio-agent.) Private correspondence with the author, 26 June, 2019.

107 Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman challenge three statements made by Kathryn Weathersby in her analysis of the 12 Soviet documents, and demonstrate each of them to be false: (1) Weathersby claimed that the USSR, China, and North Korea all ceased pressing the claim of US BW following the death of Stalin in April 1953; (2) Weathersby claimed the Chinese government denounced the US for BW use before the laboratory tests were completed; and (3) Weathersby claimed that Mao, after learning his commanders reports were inaccurate, decided to press the charges anyway. With regard to Milton Leitenberg's accompanying article which appeared in the CWIHP Bulletin #11 (Winter, 1998), Endicott and Hagerman state, "This long rambling essay is mainly a repeat of the pamphlet he had published in Stockholm in May 1998. We find ourselves in disagreement with so many matters of fact, scholarship and judgment in this article it is not possible for us to deal with them in this forum." Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman, "Twelve Newly Released Soviet-era 'Documents' and Allegations of U.S. Germ Warfare during the Korean War," Asian Perspective, vol.25, No. 1, 2001, 249257.

108 Katherine Weathersby, "Deceiving the Deceivers: Moscow, Beijing, Pyongyang, and the Allegations of Bacteriological Weapons Use in Korea," Cold War International History Project (CWIHP) Bulletin No. 11 (Winter 1998) Woodrow Wilson Institute, Washington, DC. Weathersby does not reveal how Mr. Naito acquired the 12 documents. Were they given to him by a known associate, or by an unidentified stranger, or perhaps they were placed anonymously in his personal belongings? This crucial piece of document authentication is also missing.

109 Weathersby, op. cit., p. 76.

110 Milton Leitenberg, Soviet Submarine Incursions in Swedish Waters, 198086, Praeger, New York, 1987.

111 Ola Tunander, The Secret War Against Sweden: US and British Submarine Deception in the 1980's, Frank Cass & Routledge, New York and London, 2004. See, Thomas Powell, "Suppressing US War Crimes: The Cold War Denial Machine Lives On." Truthout,, June 24, 2018.

112 The "memoir" of Wu Zhili published seven years posthumously in an obscure academic journal, Yanhuang Chunqiu, is translated into English and appended as Attachment #19 in: Milton Leitenberg, China's False Allegations of the Use of Biological Weapons by the United States during the Cold War", Cold War International History Project, Working Paper #78, March 2016.

113 Wu Zhili's actual memoir is: Autobiography of a War Doctor. Both the Yanhuang Chunqiu memoir and the autobiography discuss a specific evidence inquiry conducted by PVA commander, Gen. Peng Dehuai. Wu Zhili is tasked by Peng to argue the Devil's advocate role. The two versions of this critical meeting vary greatly in content, length, and writing style, and reach opposing conclusions. See: Thomas Powell, on the Biological Warfare Hoax Thesis, op. cit., pp. 1218, and fn#36.

114 My conclusion after comparing the two Wu Zhili documents is that the Yanhuang Chungqiu "memoir" is a counterfeit. Thomas Powell, "Suppressing US War Crimes: The Cold War Denial Machine Lives On," Truthout, op., cit.

115 There are six letters of personal correspondence from Milton Leitenberg to Sheldon Harris indicating a quid pro quo document/service exchange between the two. The initial collegiality later appears strained. Sheldon Harris Archive, Hoover Institution, Stanford, CA 94305-6010. Available at: Bioweapon Truth Commission and Global Online Library. click here>

116 John W. Powell, "The Japanese Biological Warfare Story", unpublished conference paper, presented at Changshun, China, September 1998, sponsored by the Committee on Japanese Aggression in China. Collection of the author.

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Biological Warfare in Korea: A Review of the Literature

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