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Biological Warfare in Korea: A Review of the Literature

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57 Another volume which deserves mention and which received little attention in the US is: Gavan McCormack, Cold War Hot War: An Australian Perspective on the Korean War, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1983. McCormack called for a complete and thorough reexamination of the evidence and the veracity of the conflicting claims. McCormack also argued that the question of which side started the war, North or South was not settled history. Contrary to US official claims, McCormack proposed that there was significant evidence to indicate that the South Korean Army (ROK) launched a pre-emptive invasion in the remote Ongjin peninsula and captured the regional city of Haeju, thus provoking the KPA to launch its massive counter invasion of the South. This topic will be investigated in a subsequent essay.

58 Sheldon H. Harris , Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 19321945, and the American Cover-up, Routledge, New York, 2002.

59 Stephen Endicott is the son of James Endicott.

60 Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman, The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN. 1998.

61 Ibid., Fox, 1933, p. 25 & fn1, Simmons, 1941, pp. 2526 & fn4.

62 The Merck Report was declassified and printed in abridged form in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Oct. 1, 1946, pp. 1618.

63 The Stevenson Report was released to Congress on June 30, 1950, 5 days after the start of the Korean War. The Defense Department immediately increased Ft. Detrick's budget from $5.3 million in 1950, to $345 million for the next three years. Jeffrey A. Lockwood, Six-Legged Soldiers: Using Insects to Wage War, Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 163.

64 From the Stevenson Report, quoted in Endicott and Hagerman, op. cit., pp. 4546.

65 The membership of the Stevenson committee is listed in: Endicott and Hagerman, op. cit., p. 45.

66 Dorothy Miller, History of the Air Force Participation in the Biological Warfare Program, 19441954, v1 (1952) and v2 (1957), US Air Force, Air Material Command, Historical Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

67 For a concise discussion of racism as a causal factor of American imperialism and military interventionism see, Victor Wallis, Democracy Denied: Five Lectures on US Politics, Africa World Press, Trenton NJ, 2019.

68 Endicott and Hagerman, op. cit., p. 85.

69 The National Security Council was set up in 1947 by Harry Truman to broaden and centralize foreign policy decision-making within his administration. The NSC brought together the cabinet Secretaries of State, Defense, and Treasury, with military and intelligence chiefs to reduce departmental squabbling and conflicting policy agendas. It was intended to be collegial; its decrees were non-binding on the President, and it's agenda was managed by an executive secretary. Eisenhower elevated the NSC to agency status in 1953 by establishing the office of National Security Advisor. It was not until this point that NSC policy decrees gained teeth. The mechanism of plausible denial requires that important parties are deliberately kept ignorant of certain decisions so that they can deny knowledge of a future event, and by inference deny the event as well.

70 I discuss the 12 Soviet documents at length in, Thomas Powell, "Korean War Biological Warfare Update," Socialism and Democracy, Vol.31, No. 3 Nov. 2017, pp. 126134.

71 One place that historians may look for greater clarity on US BW history in Korea would be to FOIA request an un-censored version of Dorothy Miller's History of Air Force Participation in the Biological Warfare Program, 19441954, vol. 1 (1952) and vol. 2 (1957). These two volumes are the unpublished official history of USAF participation in the bacterial warfare program. Endicott and Hagerman note that important discussions pertaining to BW development and deployment in these two volumes have been redacted. The reference citations for both volumes which might lead to additional important and unknown documents remain classified and unavailable for scholarship. Miller's two volumes are available from U.S. Air Force, Air Material Command, Historical Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

72 Harris' first two complaints are transcriptions of dates and not of substantive facts 1937 instead of 1931, 1945 instead of 1947. The third is the titling of a map of Northeast China as "Northwest China."

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Tom is a founding member of the Bioweapon Truth Commission (BWTC). You should access its Global Online Library (GOL) to learn more about how Western empire conducts "business" at home and abroad ( (more...)
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Biological Warfare in Korea: A Review of the Literature