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Biological Warfare in Korea: A Review of the Literature

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9 Theodore Rosebury, Peace or Pestilence; Biological Warfare and How to Avoid It, First published 1949, reprinted by Isha Books, New Delhi, 2013

10 Mèrey's later writings I discuss at length in, Thomas Powell, "On the Biological Warfare Hoax Thesis, Socialism and Democracy, Vol. 32 No. 1, 2018, pp. 1012.

11 Winnington was a correspondent for the British Communist Party newspaper, Daily Worker, Burchett corresponded for the French communist newspaper, L'Humanite'.

12 Wilfred Burchett and Alan Winnington, Koje Unscreened, China-Britain Friendship Association, London, 1953, p. 3.

13 Burchett was allowed access to American POW airmen and interviewed several. Wilfred Burchett wrote four books on the Korean War which will be discussed in my next article.

14 Dave Chaddock, This Must Be the Place: How the US Waged Germ War in Korea and Denied It Ever Since, Bennett and Hasting Publishing, Seattle, 2013, p. 54.

15 Ibid., p. 63.

16 During the war, Powell worked for the Office of War Information (OWI) in Chongqing, where the Nationalist Chinese government was headquartered.

17 The US Army's practice during the Korean War was not to notify next of kin of POW status.

18 Peter Williams and David Wallace, Unit 731: The Japanese Army's Secret of Secrets, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1989, 256.

19 Report of the International Scientific Commission for the Investigation of the Facts Concerning Bacterial Warfare in Korea and China, Peking, 1952. The ISC and Dr. Needham's back story are discussed is in, Thomas Powell, "Biological Warfare in the Korean War: Allegations and Cover-up", Socialism and Democracy, Vol.31. No. 1, 2017, pp. 126128.

20 ISC Report, op. cit. ., "Incident Analysis Adopted by the Commission," p. 13.

21 Ibid., The five case histories were: (1) Incidents in Korea (plague) pp.2426; (2) The Kan Nan Incident (plague) pp.2729; (3) The K'uan-Tien Incident (anthrax) pp.3031; (4) Incidents in Liaotung and Liaohsi (respiratory anthrax) pp.3234; and (5) The Dai Dong Incident (cholera), pp.3536.

22 Ibid., "Testimonies of Captured Airmen," pp.4751. The four airmen were: Lt. KL Enoch; Lt. John Quinn; Lt. FB O'Neal; Lt. Paul Kniss.

23 It's not clear when the BW attacks ended. Endicott and Hagerman suggest they could have continued well into spring of 1953 when China finally received Soviet MIG fighter jets and could challenge US air superiority that the BW stopped and the US quit stalling the armistice talks.

24 John Clews, Communist Propaganda Techniques, Praeger, New York, 1964.

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Biological Warfare in Korea: A Review of the Literature

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