The “plenary power doctrine' set the stage for America’s treatment of many of vulnerable populations. It allowed the US to wield power over the “unfortunate race” of Native Americans without constitutional limit. It prevented SCOTUS from intervening, even to protect constitutional rights, and provided the federal gov't with the authority to establish detention camps, & to engage in family separation and to criminalize religious beliefs. The plenary was expanded to justify limitless power over all kinds of people at the margins of American empire, and has been increasingly drawing upon to justify its actions. The last three administrations have pointed it as precedent to justify executive action in the war on terrorism, with the Trump administration invoking the plenary power doctrine as justification for family separation, migrant detention camps and religious persecution.'