Arthur Goldstein who has taught ESL students in NYC for decades, writes In this post, about the mandates of the New York City Department of Education, which he lacerates for a grading policy that further diminishes the discretion of teachers to make judgments about what their students need and how they are progressing. Here is an example of these guidelines for teachers: 'give credit each day when a student brings a pencil and notebook. That is, of course, measurable. It’s also idiotic, as it’s a preposterously low standard. I think the reason they gave that example was because it was very easy for them to think of. And thus, we part ways. I actually think about grades a lot. To me, bringing a pencil is only a marginal step above breathing.' Read more, of education 'reform' when top-down administrators tell teachers what they must do.