"If the K-12 schools attended by minority students do not have the quality or rigor necessary to prepare minority students to be competitive without affirmative action is their pro forma admission without fulfilling objective qualificationsmerely setting them up for deferred failure in order to create the illusion of high quality integrated public education? When the State Univ. of NY engaged in affirmative action, they understood that mere admission would not create academic success in minority students. So, its affirmative action program came with significant supplemental academic support. Moreover, a K12 public education system like LAUSD- typical de facto segregated innercity public schools, do immutable damage to their students-- minority populations-- where rote memorization and repetition without comprehension still remain the norm." This is an intelligent essay.