For a quarter century, Uzi Arad was one of Mossad’s top spies. He rose to become the director of its intelligence division. He later gained fame as a top aide to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, the Likud Party leader who has campaigned longer and harder against the Iran nuclear deal than almost any other leader. Arad, who served as the national-security adviser from 2009 to 2011, broke with his former boss over the agreement. He travelled to Washington this week to lobby—primarily among Republicans in Congress—to save the controversial agreement at a pivotal juncture.