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Anne Marie Slaughter: Bottom Up Digital, Connected Diplomacy and Statecraft

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http://www.princeton.edu/~slaughtr/

Wikipedia bio and info:
Anne-Marie Slaughter was the Director of Policy Planning for the U.S. State Department from January 2009 until February 2011. [1] She is the Bert G. Kerstetter '66 University Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University and was formerly Dean of Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs . [1] [2] [3]

In the 1980s Slaughter was part of the team headed by Professor Abram Chayes that helped the Sandinista government of Nicaragua bring suit against the United States in the International Court of Justice for violations of international law, in the case Nicaragua v. United States (1986).

She served on the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School from 1989--1994 and then on the faculty of Harvard Law School before moving to Princeton to become dean of the Woodrow Wilson School in 2002. During her tenure as dean she was credited with vigorously rebuilding Princeton's international relations faculty, including hiring a bevy of well-respected academics including Robert Keohane , Helen Milner , and G. John Ikenberry . She also retained or hired influential right-of-center scholars including Aaron Friedberg and Thomas Christensen.
In 2003 the Woodrow Wilson School hosted an art exhibit titled "Ricanstructions" that opponents of the exhibit claimed was "anti-Catholic" and desecrated Christian symbols. Slaughter defended the exhibit. [5] In late 2005, over 100 Princeton students and faculty signed an open letter to Slaughter and Princeton president Shirley Tilghman criticizing the University in general and the Woodrow Wilson School in particular of biasing selection of invited speakers in favor of those supportive of the Bush administration . [6] Slaughter responded to these claims by pointing to the dozens of public lectures by independent academics, journalists, and other analysts that the Wilson School hosts each academic year. [7] Others noted that, with Bush's Republican Party controlling the Presidency and both houses of Congress , many of the most influential people in the federal government, and in the international relations apparatus in particular, were necessarily administration supporters.
Slaughter is an influential proponent of the use of international relations theory in international legal theory . She has published two books on international relations and dozens of articles, both in scholarly journals and in mainstream publications. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and serves as a director on the Council's Board. From 2002-2004 she served as president of the American Society of International Law. From 2004-2006 she served as co-director of the Princeton Project on National Security . In November 2006 she was chosen to chair the Secretary of State 's Advisory Committee on Democracy Promotion.
In 2003, Slaughter publicly defended the impending Iraq invasion as "legitimate," apart from the question of whether it was illegal. Slaughter later advocated moving past the earlier debate on the Iraq invasion, a position criticized by some who opposed the war as self-serving. [8]
Slaughter also serves on the Advisory Board of the National Security Network and the Brookings Doha Center .
State Department career On January 23, 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton announced the appointment of Slaughter as the new Director of Policy Planning under the Obama administration . [1]
At the State Department, Slaughter was chief architect of the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review whose first instantiation was released in December 2010. [9] [10] Commenting upon the skepticism that often greets such reports, and reiterating Secretary Clinton's strong desire that the QDDR become an essential part of the State Department policy process, Slaughter said: "I'm pretty sure you're thinking, "I've heard this before,' [a big plan to change the way a government agency works] But this is different." [10]
In February 2011 Slaughter returned to Princeton and is teaching a seminar on National Security Policy. She remains a consultant for the State Department. [11]

Slaughter was chief architect of the
Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review
The final report of a QDDR will lay out, in the department's own words:
The baseline: An assessment of (1) the range of global threats, challenges and opportunities both today and over the next two decades that should inform our diplomatic and development strategies; and (2) the current status of our approaches to diplomacy and development, with emphasis on the relationship between diplomacy and development in our existing policies and structures.The ends: A clear statement of our overarching foreign policy and development objectives, our specific policy priorities, and our expected results, with an emphasis on the achievable and not merely the desirable.The ways: A set of recommendations on the strategies needed to achieve these results, including the timing and sequencing of decisions and implementation.The means: A set of recommendations on (1) the tools and resources needed to implement the strategy; and (2) management and organizational reforms that will improve outcomes and efficiency.The metrics: A set of recommendations on performance measures to assess outcomes, and--where feasible--impacts.The links: An assessment of how the results and recommendations of this review fit into broader interagency, whole-of-government approaches, and into the Administration's larger foreign policy framework.[3]

The QDDR held its first meetings in October 2009 at the Willard InterContinental Washington , hosted by the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition . [11] [13] There, Deputy Secretary Lew took care to say that the review process was not cover for an attempt by the State Department to absorb USAID. [13] Some 400 people attended, with many confused by the process and uncertain how they could influence it. [13]
The first Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review was completed in December 2010 and was entitled Leading Through Civilian Power ; it was presented by Secretary Clinton and USAID Administrator Shah, to employees of both organizations gathered at a town hall meeting. [14] The 150-page document outlined three key factors that would affect the State Department in coming years: limited financial resources due to U.S. budgetary constraints and political realities; a rapidly shifting global landscape that features power being spread across many countries and the prevalence of non-national actors; and the ability to respond to problems caused by weak states and incipient or actual conflict with a flexible corps of civilian expertise. [15]
The review thusly set forth a possible bureaucratic overhaul of the State Department, with a number of goals: elevation of "civilian power"focus on conflict preventionelevation of U.S. ambassadors in coordinating work of all abroad-tasked U.S. agenciesfocus on the issues and needs of particular key 'regional hubs' in the worlddefuse crises before violence; team with Defense Department if that failsgive USAID the Obama administration's global health and agriculture initiativescreate an undersecretary for civilian security\create bureaus for energy resources and counterterrorismcreate new coordinator position for cyber issues[15][16]
Policy-planning director Anne-Marie Slaughter , the lead architect of the review, said that "What we're trying to say to Congress is, we get it. We realize we've got to prove to you and to the American people that we are good stewards of your money." [15] The U.S. Global Leadership Coalition viewed the release favorably, saying "The QDDR represents a bold step toward implementing a smart-power foreign policy by elevating our civilian power and ensuring effective, results-driven programs." [15]
The review would then go to Congress for its review, upon which prospect State Department officials expressed hopefulness; [16] they also wanted Congress to approve makintg the QDDR a required, regular part of the State Department process. [15] Clinton said, "I am determined that this report will not merely gather dust, like so many others." [15] 

Interview raw notes (transcript will be available next week)

Foreign Affairs article: 
America's Edge  by Anne Marie Slaughter
"In this world, the measure of power is connectedness." 

"Business is networked: every CEO advice manual published in the past decade has focused on the shift from the vertical world of hierarchy to the horizontal world of networks."  

We are in a world in which hierarchies are being flattened...
people at

Just about evey organization under the sun
Even the US military has recognized the necessity for devolving responsibility outward...

Admiral Stevridas book Partnership for the Americas

State dept and USAID budget $50 billion War dept $800 billion

Diplomacy isn't about govt officials meeting with govt officials anymore.

Hillary Clinton calls it 21st Century diplomacy

Young foreign service workers natually think more bottom up rather than top down.  
Rob: Why
Young people are digital natives and the technology is all about connection.

A connection broker is a power broker in a very different way.

Anyone with a laptop and the internet can...

Think about how you can (kiva) donate to any group online-- makes it possible to identify any promising group and donate to them, not like in the past where it had to be through a few agencies.




Foreign Affairs Video
It gets harder to do mass violence with this technology.
it gets harder for governments to maintain the stories they tell about themselves.

Personal Democracy forum
Berlin wall story old story of billiard balls

incredibly and costly in all sorts of ways to shut down the internet

In cold war, classic image of states were billiard balls-- opaque, impenetrable spheres-- that bumped into each other. Today that makes no sense at all. You have governments, and they are fairly losed... and you have officials that are supposed to engage with other officials. But those govt's are embedded in a whole web of other actors-- corporations, foundations, universities, civic groups. So now the idea of a billiard ball makes  no sense.


very different world-- we don't start from separation, we start from connection
If you start from separation, you have all these "atomized" individuals and states and think of who they are and what their goals are and then thinks of who they are going to connect to to get it.

example of how they do that.
If you start from connection you start assuming a dense web of relations with others...

They do it in a different way, by responding to others.

Best example is Arab Spring.
Libya-- Gaddafi was about to massacre a large portion of the poplulation of Bengazi...

If you start from perspective of connection, about revolutions in Egypt, Tunisia... all those movements are connected. We the United States, need to have relations with not just the government but with those people-- government to

Would have been quite disastrous in terms of all those other movements we are connected to.

Rob: What about the criticisms of imperialism by the US?





911 and Arab spring
both Powered by deep, wide dense connections

If you start from connection there are many, many entities that can be connected.

Next to world of nations is world of connected-- non-state actors (pope, Exxon, CARE).  Shirky says that's like calling an automobile a horseless carriage

Profound psychological difference if you start from connection...
They can't imagine being separate.
Her era was about the atomized individual making choices
There was an agent and you figured out strategies to achieve them.
You start with separation then

Functioning Libyan democracy that respects human rights....

Rob: How will Gaddafi as an example of totalitarian regime use these new non-hierarchical, networked  technologies fight back?

This goes back to Luther
Technology can be of liberation or oppression
It's how it used.. can be used to connect to people and send out literature or to send out false information, to deceive protesters and to trap them. The best we can do is to do everything we can to support the ways it is being used progressively, to keep one step ahead of the ways it's being used oppressively.

David Brooks The Social Animal

Our brain are built to be connected to others. We grow and develop that way. We are much happier when we are connected to others That experience that you are not alone.. that you are capable of mobilizing others when you are not aloone is very incendiary, very important for bottom up politics, bottom up social activism. There is a reason that solitary confinement is a punishment.
We're now seeing technology reversing a kind of solitary based on where you born, what religion or race you were born into... that will change your brain and will change your sense of your own possibility and...

Rob: How does that affect diplomacy and the state department.
Clinto really gets it. Starting point is that we're going to increasingly think of our embassies not as communications outposts-- so ambassador can be sent a message to communicate or receive a communication from a government. now they are becoming platforms for convening and connecting...
example Ambassador in New Zealand is our first openly gay ambassador... is bringing together young new zealand students-- has reached out GLBT groups among Maori tribes, etc. the idea as an embassy as a platform disseminating information for bringing groups.

Ambassador to South Africa-- very active in New Media.

Alec Ross was hired by Secty Clinton to advise embassies around the world as to how they can use new media as a way of connecting and convening lots of different actors and has pioneered how our embassies can teach use new media to empower new groups

Techdels-- Technology Delegations

We can learn from countries that are on the digital frontier-- from countries that don't have the kinds of technologies and media. Example Kenya's ushahidi-- designed for anyone with a mobile phone to be able to send info about election violence... was adapted for the Haitian earthquake

used to fight corruption- any time you are asked to give a bribe you can text it in it's connected to mappping so you can actually see WHERE the corruption is.



Starting from connection you have to start by identifying your relations to others.
This is easier for women to grasp... women have been more connected, more defined by their relationships. It is now generational as well as gender.



Carol Gilligan's book In a Different Voice reported that girls were much more likely to see the world as a web and wanted to be at the center and the boys say the world as a hierarchy and wanted to be at the top.

Atomized

women use social media more than men but they use it in different ways.


We now have, as well as governments, a growing set of social actors all of whom can be connected to each other in every changing ways with


These changes are changing our sense of possiblity in the world.

We face foreign policy problems that cannot be solved by governments alone

Greatest problems Clinton faces can never be solved by governments-- take climate change, global disease or global economy-- we're going to have to be abl to mobilize individuals.. that will require connecting to all the different groups and catalysts and that will be citizen diplomacy...

Govt will increasingly be a platform and catalyst and steward for making connections, mobilizing action... in ways that mean all of us will be engaged in solving global problems. ..

On cautionary side.... not everybody is who they seems. The question is who is legitimate, who do we trust to mobilize action. There's a very important role for government... to play a validating, legitimating, connecting role, not the only validators--



international relations theory
Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review

Development: top down vs Bottom up, Hierarchical vs networked.

Google and Facebook in China...
google vs. Baidu.

part of the diplomacy of an interconnected world is to develop as many connections as you can...

Where you draw the line is not easy.

as the US has declared that it will consider hack attacks as acts of war, will foreign nations consider unauthorized acts of "development" as acts of war?

Many will, will certainly regard as unlawful intervention...
We ARE intervening on behalf of  individuals in foreign countries.

What extent will the universal laws of human rights, social rights, economic rights serve as a counterweight to governments who want to prevent their own citizens from enjoying those rights Can we say that those kinds of activities, (supporting those activities)

Alec Ross. on globalization and digital


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Rob Kall has spent his adult life as an awakener and empowerer-- first in the field of biofeedback, inventing products, developing software and a music recording label, MuPsych, within the company he founded in 1978-- Futurehealth, and founding, organizing and running 3 conferences: Winter Brain, on Neurofeedback and consciousness, Optimal Functioning and Positive Psychology (a pioneer in the field of Positive Psychology, first presenting workshops on it in 1985) and Storycon Summit Meeting on the Art Science and Application of Story-- each the first of their kind.  Then, when he found the process of raising people's consciousness and empowering them to take more control of their lives  one person at a time was too slow, he founded Opednews.com-- which has been the top search result on Google for the terms liberal news and progressive opinion for several years. Rob began his Bottom-up Radio show, broadcast on WNJC 1360 AM to Metro Philly, also available on iTunes, covering the transition of our culture, business and world from predominantly Top-down (hierarchical, centralized, authoritarian, patriarchal, big)  to bottom-up (egalitarian, local, interdependent, grassroots, archetypal feminine and small.) Recent long-term projects include a book, Bottom-up-- The Connection Revolution, debillionairizing the planet and the Psychopathy Defense and Optimization Project. 

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