or absolute phrasing. (Words like always and never
for no exceptions.)
Adjectives that attribute merit or adjectives that demean without
support. (Outstanding authority John Smith". Discredited
activist judge Jim Jones ")
of anonymous authority. (A nationally famous physician states ")
of contrary information. (Writer withholds or fails to discuss
dissenting opinion and
arguments that appeal to emotion rather than reason.
phrasing that attacks the character of an individual.
insinuation an indirect statement that implies something without
and similes that grossly oversimplify, usually diverting attention from
complexity of reality. (A great way to finesse flawed logic.)
The refusal to even consider well known conflicting information,
or ignoring it.
Sophism. Clever or
fallacious argument that leads to a wrong conclusion. Sophism can look
rational, reasonable argument, but usually ignores some facts and
others to make a case. Connecting some of the dots, omitting others, to
false pattern. Patternicity that imagines or creates meaning from
Seeking to attribute authority to the opinion of someone whose
not extend to the topic. (Medical opinions of a Disk Jockey)
Too good or too bad to
Arguments that assert a
conspiracy that would be hard to conceal -- one that would require the
complicity of a large number of diverse people. (In real life, leaks
happen, whistle-blowers surface, etc.)
Writing that sounds
like a sales pitch. (one sided and persuasively phrased.
You infer a hidden
motive or agenda. (Political mud slinging.)
Absence of obvious
questions that an objective author would raise and answer.
Absence of independent
sources and externally verifiable fact patterns. No references.
Use of a false name or
handle to obscure author's identity and avoid accountability.
22. Extrapolation of a peripheral
issue to discredit or embellish a core issue. (The sexual behavior of a
judge or authority as evidence to question his competence in law.)
23. Anecdotes as evidence of a
generalized truth. ("My cousin got the flu after he was vaccinated.")