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Evidence of Electoral Fraud in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election: A Reading List

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Evidence of Electoral Fraud in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election: A Reading List

by Michael Keefer

 

www.OpEdNews.com

 

 15 November 2004

This reading list has been prepared with the aim of making a wide range of readings on the subject of the integrity --or the lack of integrity --of the recent U.S. presidential election readily available.  I have sought to facilitate analytical use of the texts listed here by dividing them into five groups under the following headings:

1. The Openness of New Voting Technologies to Fraud;

2. Allegations and Evidence of Fraud in Recent U.S. Elections;

3. Advance Warnings of Fraud in the 2004 Presidential Election;

4. Allegations and Evidence of Fraud in the 2004 Presidential Election;

5. Allegations and Evidence of a Cover-up of Electoral Fraud

Some important writings which deal with more than one of these issues --among them Bev Harris 's ground-breaking book Black Box Voting, Andrew Gumbel 's assessment of the threat to democracy posed by the new voting technologies, and Steven Freeman 's analysis of exit poll discrepancies --appear under more than one of the five headings.

Even at this early stage, less than two weeks after the presidential election, a growing accumulation of evidence points to the conclusion that the official vote tallies (listed by The New York Times at http://www.nytimes.com/ref/elections2004/2004President.html), were produced by a massive and sustained project of electoral fraud. 

The efforts of the Republican Party to purge African Americans from voters ' lists, to frighten voters with conveniently timed 'terror alerts ' (complemented by Osama bin Laden 's late-October Jack-in-the-Box act), and to 'suppress ' the Democratic vote, wherever possible, by reducing the numbers of polling stations and voting machines in working-class precincts, have been widely reported and analyzed.  But the materials gathered here suggest very strongly that these crass maneuvers were supplemented on November 2nd by less conspicuous --and yet decisive --manipulations of the machines that recorded and tabulated the votes.  

How precisely this apparent manipulation may have been carried out in different jurisdictions --by rigging machines in advance to mis-record or delete votes, by configuring proprietary software so as to allow 'back-door ' access for unrestrained vote-tampering, or by hacking into the notoriously insecure vote-tabulation systems --remains as yet undetermined.  However, statistical analyses of the kind provided by Steven Freeman can clarify the scale of the vote-theft in key states.  And further work of the kind Brandon Adams has undertaken --he notes striking divergences among Florida voters according to the machines they used --can identify key areas for focused Freedom of Information Act demands, and for more detailed subsequent analysis. 

Such explorations, one can anticipate, will produce interesting results.  Clumsy late-night alterations of exit-poll data (strongly suggestive of an attempt to cover up vote-tally manipulations) were made on November 2nd: these gave several observers an initial indication that large-scale fraud had occurred.  Expert study of other textual and material evidence, where further forms of clumsiness are already manifest, should bring to light some of the details of what the exit-poll fiddling was designed to conceal. 

But this work should not lose sight, in its care and scrupulousness, of the larger context. 

The government of George W. Bush has made no secret of its scorn for the American Constitution and Bill of Rights, its hostility to any notion of international law, its contemptuous dismissal of the decent opinion of humankind both at home and abroad, its contempt, in the broadest sense, for truth. 

Bush has claimed that the 2004 election gave him 'capital ' --which he now will not hesitate to spend.  But as the evidence is revealing with growing clarity, this election was not a victory for Bush, but rather the occasion for an insolent usurpation. 

A 'president ' who takes office through fraud and usurpation can make no legitimate claim to exercise the stolen power of his office. 

As the knowledge of his offence becomes ever more widely disseminated, he may yet come "[to] feel his title / Hang loose upon him, like a giant 's robe / Upon a dwarfish thief. "    

Michael Keefer, Associate Professor, School of English and Theatre Studies, University of Guelph (Ontario, Canada)

1. The Openness of New Voting Technologies to Fraud

 

CalTech/MIT Voting Technology Project.  "Immediate Steps to Avoid Lost Votes in the 2004 Presidential Election: Recommendations for the Election Assistance Commission. "  July 2004.  http://www.vote.caltech.edu/Reports/index.html.   

Collier, James M., and Kenneth F. Collier.  Votescam: The Stealing of America .  Victoria House Press, 1992.  ISBN 0963416308. 

Collier, Victoria.  "Computerized Election Fraud in America : A Brief History. "  Votescam (25 October 2003), http://www.votescam.com/abriefhistory.php

Conover, Bev.  "Computerized voting systems cannot be made secure. "  Online Journal (20 October 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/102003Conover/102003conover.html

------.  "Voting: When low-tech beats high-tech. "  Online Journal (25 June 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/062504Conover/062504conover.html.  

Equal Justice Foundation.  Vote Fraud and Election Issues.  Last updated 27 September 2004.  http://www.ejfi.org/Voting/Voting.htm#fraud

Harris, Bev.  Black Box Voting: Ballot Tampering in the 21st Century.  Renton , WA : Talion Publishing/Black Box Voting, 2003.  ISBN 1890916900.  Free internet version available at http://www.blackboxvoting.org

------.  "Inside a U.S. Election Vote Counting Program. "  Scoop (8 July 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0307/S00065.htm; Truthout (July 2003), http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/voting.shtml

Hartmann, Thom.  "If You Want to Win an Election, Just Control the Voting Machines. "  Common Dreams News Center (31 January 2003). http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0131-01.htm; Scoop (31 January 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0302/S00009.htm; Online Journal (6 February 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/020603Hartmann/020603hartmann.html

------.  "Now your vote is the property of a private corporation. "  SmirkingChimp.com (11 March 2003), http://www.smirkingchimp.com/print.php?sid=10536; Online Journal (13 March 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/031303Hartmann/031303hartmann.html.   

Internet Policy Institute.  Report of the National Workshop on Internet Voting: Issues and Research Agenda.  March 2001.  62 pp.  Sponsored by the National Science Foundation.  Conducted in cooperation with the University of Maryland and hosted by the Freedom Forum.  http://www.nsfe-voterprt.pdf

Jones, Douglas W.  Voting and Elections.  Course on Computers in Voting, 22C:196, Fall 2001, Department of Computer Science, University of Iowa .  http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting.   

------.  "The Diebold AccuVote TS Should be Decertified. "  ESENEX Security Symposium, Washington DC (6 August 2003), http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting/dieboldusenix.html.  

Kohno, Tadayoshi, Adam Stubblefield, Aviel D. Rubin, and Dan S. Wallach.  "Analysis of an Electronic Voting System. "  IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, Oakland CA , May 2004.  http://avirubin.com/vote/analysis/index.html.   

Kocher, Paul, and Bruce Schneier.  "Insider Risks in Elections. "  Inside Risks 169, CACM 47, 7 (July 2004), http://www.csl.sri.com/users/neumann/insiderisks04.html

Landes, Lynn.  " Mission impossible: Federal observers & voting machines. "  Online Journal (26 November 2002), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/112602Landes/112602landes.html

------.  "Voting machines violate Constitution: Who will launch legal challenge? "  Online Journal (15 April 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/041503Landes/041503landes.html

------.  "Offshore company captures online military vote. "  Online Journal (21 July 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/072103Landes/072103landes.html

------.  "Internet Voting --The End of Democracy? "  27 August 2003.  http://www.ecotalk.org/InternetVoting.htm; Online Journal (4 September 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/090403Landes/090403landes.html

------.  "Republicans and Brits will count California 's recall votes. "  Online Journal (6 October 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/100603Landes/100603landes.html

------.  "NIST ignores scientific method for voting technology. "  Online Journal (16 December 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/121603Landes/121603landes.html

Mercuri, Rebecca.  Electronic Vote Tabulation: Checks and Balances.  Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer and Information Systems, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania , 2001.  Available from http://www.umi.com (Thesis # 3003665). 

------.  Electronic Voting.  http://www.notablesoftware.com/evote.html

------.  Press Release (24 September 2002): "MIT vs. Mercuri.  Rebecca Mercuri rebuts recent MIT/CalTech voting systems analysis and calls for moratorium on new electronic balloting equipment purchases. "  http://www.notablesoftware.com/Papers/MITvsMercuri.html

------, and Peter G. Neumann.  "Verification for Electronic Balloting Systems. "  Chapter 3 of Secure Electronic Voting, ed. Dimitris Gritzalis.  Advances in Information Security, vol. 7.  Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.  ISBN 1402073011. 

Norr, Henry. "The Risks of Touch-Screen Balloting. "  San Francisco Chronicle (4 December 2000),

Rubin, Aviel.  " Testimony , U.S. Election Assistance Commission. Dr. Aviel Rubin, Professor of Computer Science, May 5, 2004. "  http://avirubin.com/vote

Saltman, Roy G.  Accuracy, Integrity, and Security in Computerized Vote-Tallying.  NBS Special Publication 500-158.  Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology, National Bureau of Standards. Gaithersburg , MD 20899 , August 1988.  http://www.itl.nist.gov/lab/specpubs/500-158.htm.   

Schneier, Bruce.  "Voting and Technology. "  Crypto-Gram Newsletter (15 December 2000), http://www.schneier.com/crypto-gram-0012.html

Sludge, C. D. " Sludge Report #154: Bigger Than Watergate!  How to Rig an Election in the United States . "  Scoop (8 July 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0307/S00064.htm; Truthout (July 2003), http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/voting.shtml; also published under the title "Bald-Faced Lies About Black Box Voting Machines and the Truth About the Diebold Rob-Georgia File. "  Equal Justice Foundation (July 2003), http://www.ejfi.org/Voting/Voting-25.htm#rig.   

Thompson, Ken.  "Reflections on Trusting Trust. "  Communications of the ACM 27.8 (August 1984): 761-63.  http://www.acm.org/classics/sep95

Zetter, Kim. "Time to Recall E-Vote Machines? "  Wired News (6 October 2003), . 

------.  "E-Voting Undermined By Sloppiness. "  Wired News (17 December 2003), . 

 ------.  "E-Vote Still Flawed, Experts Say. "  Wired News (29 January 2004), http://www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,62109.00,html

2. Allegations and Evidence of Fraud in Recent U.S. Elections

 

Collier, James M., and Kenneth F. Collier.  Votescam: The Stealing of America .  Victoria House Press, 1992.  ISBN 0963416308.   

Collier, Victoria.  "Your stolen vote --the missing piece of the puzzle. "  May 2000; republished by Online Journal (8 February 2001), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/020801Collier/020801collier.html

------.  "Computerized Election Fraud in America : A Brief History. "  VoteScam (25 October 2003), http://www.votescam.com/abriefhistory.php

Conover, Bev.  "Once again, the media try to con the people into believing Bush won. "  Online Journal (5 April 2001), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/040501Conover/040501conover.html

------.  " Florida 's 'fixed it ' farce. "  Online Journal (11 May 2001), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/051101Conover/051101conover.html

Democratic Investigative Staff, House Committee on the Judiciary.  How to Make Over One Million Votes Disappear: Electoral Sleight of Hand in the 2000 Presidential Election.  A Fifty-State Report Prepared for Rep. John Conyers, Jr. (Ranking Member, House Committee on the Judiciary; Dean, Congressional Black Caucus.  122 pp.  Washington , DC : U.S. House of Representatives, August 20, 2001.  http://www.electionreport.pdf

Equal Justice Foundation.  Vote Fraud and Election Issues.  Last updated 27 September 2004.  http://www.ejfi.org/Voting/Voting.htm#fraud.  

Gumbel, Andrew.  "All the President 's votes? A quiet revolution is taking place in U.S. politics. By the time it 's over, the integrity of elections will be in the unchallenged, unscrutinised control of a few large --and pro-Republican --corporations. Andrew Gumbel wonders if democracy in America can survive. "  The Independent (13 October 2003), http://www.news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=452972; also available at Common Dreams News Center, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/103301.htm

Harris, Bev.  Black Box Voting: Ballot Tampering in the 21st Century.  Renton , WA : Talion Publishing/Black Box Voting, 2003.  !SBN 1890916900.  Free internet version available at http://www.blackboxvoting.org

Landes, Lynn.  "2002 elections: Republican voting machines, election irregularities, and 'way-off ' polling results. "  Online Journal (8 November 2002), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110802Landes/110802landes.html.   

------.  Election Fraud and Irregularities --BY YEAR.  http://www.ecotalk.org/VotingMachineErrors.htm

Mercuri, Rebecca.  "Florida 2002: Sluggish Systems, Vanishing Votes. "  Inside Risks 149, CACM 45, 11 (November 2002), http://www.csl.sri.com/users/neumann/insiderisks.html#149

Zetter, Kim.  "Did E-Vote Firm Patch Election? "  Wired News (13 October 2003),   

3. Advance Warnings of Fraud in the 2004 Presidential Election

 

Allen, David.  "Inside An E-Voting Whitewash Conference Call. "  Scoop (23 August 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0308/S00175.htm

Boyle, Alan.  "E-voting firm reports computer break-in. "  MSNBC.com (29 December 2003), http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3825143

Fitrakis, Bob.  "Diebold, electronic voting and the vast right-wing conspiracy. "  The Free Press (24 February 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/834

------.  "Death of a patriot: no more. "   The Free Press (17 March 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/853

------.  "E-Voting: The new battle hymn of the republic. "  Online Journal (11 September 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/091104Fitrakis/091104fitrakis.html.  

------, and Harvey Wasserman.  "Diebold 's Political Machine. "  MotherJones.com (5 March 2004), http://www.motherjones.com/commentary/columns/2004/03/03_200.html

Goodman, Amy, et al.  "Will Bush Backers Manipulate Votes to Deliver GW Another Election? "  Democracy Now! (4 September 2003), available at Common Dreams News Center, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0904-10.htm

Gumbel, Andrew.  "All the President 's votes? A quiet revolution is taking place in U.S. politics. By the time it 's over, the integrity of elections will be in the unchallenged, unscrutinised control of a few large --and pro-Republican --corporations. Andrew Gumbel wonders if democracy in America can survive. "  The Independent (13 October 2003), http://www.news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=452972; also available at Common Dreams News Center, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1033-01.htm

Harris, Bev.  "Voting industry insiders hold secret meeting to hire PR firm to sell electronic voting to public. "  Online Journal (26 August 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/082604Harris/082604harris.html

Hartmann, Thom.  "A Winning Machine. "  AlterNet (4 February 2003), http://www.alternet.org/story/15103.  

------.  The Theft of Your Vote is Just a Chip Away. "  AlterNet (30 July 2003), http://www.alternet.org/story/16474

"How George W. Bush Won the 2004 Presidential Election. "   Infernal Press (25 June 2003), http://www.infernalpress.com/Columns/election.html; Centre for Research on Globalization (15 July 2003), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/INF307A.html.    

"Journalist [Lynn Landes] seeks temporary restraining orders against use of voting machines & absentee ballots. "  Online Journal (18 October 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/101804NewsFlash/101804newsflash.html

King, Martin Luther III, and Greg Palast.  "Jim Crow Revived in Cyberspace. "  The Baltimore Sun (8 May 2003); also available at http://www.gregpalast.com/detail.cfm?artid=222&row=1.   

Landes, Lynn.  "Voting machine fiasco: SAIC, VoteHere and Diebold. "  Online Journal (20 August 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/082003Landes/082003landes.html.  

------.  Voting Systems Orgs and Companies.  http://www.ecotalk.org/VotingMachineCompanies.htm

------.  "Democrats send mixed signals in voting technology debate. "  Online Journal (29 January 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/012904Landes/012904landes.html

------.  "Questions mount over New Hampshire 's primary. "  Online Journal (11 February 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/021104Landes/021104landes.html

------.  "Faking democracy: Americans don 't vote, machines do, & ballot printers can 't fix that. "  Online Journal (2 April 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/040704Landes/040704landes.html

------.  "Two voting companies and two brothers will count 80 percent of U.S. election using both scanners & touchscreens. "  Online Journal (28 April 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/042804Landes/042804landes.html

------.  "Federal commission nixes talk of paper-only elections; stacks panels with proponents of paperless touchscreens. "  Online Journal (12 May 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/051204Landes/051204landes.html

------.  "Could the Associated Press rig the election? "  Online Journal (23 October 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/102304Landes/102304landes.html

------.  "If this election is stolen, will it be by enough to stop a recount? "  Online Journal (31 October 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/103104Landes/103104landes.html

Leopold, Jason.  "Electronic voting minus paper trails makes it easy to rig elections. "  Online Journal (4 September 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/090403Leopard/090403leopard.html

Moore, Steve.  "E-Democracy: Stealing the Election in 2004. "  Global Outlook 8 (Summer 2004); Centre for Research on Globalization (11 July 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/MOO407A.html

"On Election Day 2004, How Will You Know If Your Vote Is Properly Counted? Answer: You Won 't. NJ Rep. Rush Holt Introduces Legislation to Require All Vting Machines To Produce A Paper Trail. "  OpEdNews.com (n.d.), http://www.opednews.com/holt%20paper%20balloy%20bill.htm

Palast, Greg.  " Florida Computers Snatch Thousands of Votes from Kerry. "  Truthout (26 October 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/102904X.shtml; also published under the title " Florida 's Computers Have Already Counted Thousands of Votes for George W. Bush. "  Common Dreams News Center (28 October 2004), http://www.commondreams.org/head;ines04/1028-02.htm.    

------.  "Electoral Fraud, Ethnic Cleansing of Voter Rolls, An Election Spoiled Rotten. "  TomPaine.com (1 November 2004), http://www.tompaine.com; Centre for Research on Globalization (4 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/PAL411A.html

Pitt, William Rivers.  "Desperate Measures. "  Truthout (20 October 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/102004A.shtml.  

Redman, Colleen.  "Voting machine voodoo: Democracy at risk. "  Online Journal (19 November 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/111903Redman/111903redman.html

Sludge, C. D.  "Sludge #156: SAIC Connected to E-Voting Whitewash. "  Scoop (23 August 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0308/S00173.htm

------.  "Sludge Report #157: The ITAA, The Election Center , & Doug Lewis. "  Scoop (23 August 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0308/S00174.htm

Sperry, Mac.  "Stopping the vote theft --urgent --drop all else. "  Online Journal (25 October 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/102503Sperry/102503sperry.html

Zeller, Tom.  "Ready or Not (and Maybe Not), Electronic Voting Goes National. "  The New York Times (19 September 2004); Truthout (20 September 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/092004L.shtml

4. Allegations and Evidence of Fraud in the 2004 Presidential Election

Adams, Brandon .  "An Examination of the 2004 Elections " (7 November 2004).  Includes "Total Votes Cast Outnumber Voter Turnout in Florida , " "Floridan Votes, Sorted by Voting Technology, " "Floridan Votes, Sorted by Machine Vendor, " and "Floridan Votes, Sorted by Voting Machine Model. "  http://www.electionexamination.blogspot.com.  

Book, Sue.  "Elections problems due to a software glitch. "  Sun Journal (5 November 2004),

Byrne, John.  "Kerry seen as presidential victor in early exit polls. "  The Blue Lemur (2 November 2004, 3:15 p.m.), http://www.bluelemur.com/index.php?p=386

------.  "Odds of Bush gaining by 4 percent in all exit polling states 1 in 50,000; Evoting/paper variance not found to be significant. "  The Blue Lemur (8 November 2004), http://www.bluelemur.com/index.php?p=405

Cardinale, Matthew.  "A Genealogy of Votergate Media Coverage 2004: Through the Eyes of Googlenews. "  OpEdNews.com (10 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/cardinale_111004_votergate_media.htm

Chin, Larry.  "The Stolen Election of 2004: welcome back to hell. "  Online Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110504Chin/110504chin.html; Centre for Research on Globalization (5 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHI411B.html.   

"Computer error at voting machine gives Bush 3,893 extra votes. "  Akron Beacon Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.ohio.com/mld/beaconjournal/news/state/10103910.htm?1c

"Computer glitch still baffles county clerk. "  News-Dispatch (4 November 2004), http://www.michigancitym.com/articles/2004/11/04/news02.txt

"Computer May Have Lost 4,500 N.C. Votes. "  Guardian Unlimited (4 November 2004), http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,1282,-459634,4,00.html

Conyers, John Jr., Jerrold Nadler, Robert Wexler (Members of the Congress of the United States , House of Representatives).  "Letter to GAO Comptroller Walker Requesting Investigation of Voting Machines and Technologies Used in 2004 Election. "  5 November 2004.  http://www.house.gov/conyers

Conyers, John Jr., Jerrold Nadler, Robert Wexler, Robert C. Scott, Melvin Watt, Rush Holt (Members of the Congress of the United States, House of Representatives).  "Follow-up Letter to GAO Comptroller Walker Requesting Investigation of Voting Machines and Technologies Used in 2004 Election. "  8 November 2004.  http://www.house.gov/conyers

"Countinghouse blues: Too many votes. "  6 News Omaha : WOWT.com (n.d.), http://www.wowt.com/news/headlines/1161971.html

Dopp, Kathy.  "Surprising Pattern of Florida 's Election Results. "  Ustogether.org (3 November 2004), http://www.ustogether.org/Florida_Election.htm.  For further analysis and graphic representation of Kathy Dopp 's data, see http://www.ustogether.org/election04/FloridaDataStats.htm, and http://www.rubberbug.com/temp/Florida2004chart.htm.   

Drobny, Sheldon.  "Votergate 2004: We Don 't Need Paper to Prove Fraud, But We Do Need Money and Leadership, NOW. "  OpEdNews.com (9 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/drobny_110904_election_investigation.htm; Centre for Research on Globalization (10 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/DRO411A.html.   

Evans, Shaula.  "Republican Election Theft Clearinghouse [Updated 11/12]. "  BOPNews (12 November 2004), http://www.bopnews.com/archives/002328.html

------.  "Outside eye: Dems Abroad Election Fraud Report. "  BOPNews (12 November 2004), http://www.bopnews.com/archives/002420.html#2420

  "Exit Polls vs. Actual Results. "  http://www.bandsagainstbush.org/cgi-bin/archives/exit_polls.gif; also at http://www.bandsagainstbush.org/cgi-bin/archives/000117.html

Farrell, Maureen.  "Another Rigged Election? The Elephant in the Voting Booth. "  Buzzflash (9 November 2004), http://www.buzzflash.com/farrell/04/11/far04038.html

Fitrakis, Bob.  "Did Kerry Concede Too Soon? "  The Free Press (5 November 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/981; Centre for Research on Globalization (6 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/FIT411A.html

------.  "None dare call it voter suppression and fraud. "  The Free Press (7 November 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/983

------.  "And so the sorting and discarding of Kerry votes begins. "  The Free Press (10 November 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/985.  

Fordahl, Matthew, et al.  "Electronic Voting Machine Woes Reported. "  Abc27.com (2 November 2004), http://www.whtm.com/news/stories/1104/184856.html

Freeman, Steven F., PhD.  "The Unexplained Exit Poll Discrepancy. "  Buzzflash (11 November 2004), http://www.buzzflash.com/alerts/04/11/ale04090.html

Gagliano, Richard A.  "A Petition to Congress requesting an investigation into the Presidential Election of 2004. "  http://www.petitiononline.com/cgi-bin/mlk?http://www.dtmagazine.com

"Glitch causes Franklin Co. recount. "  Indianapolis Star (11 November 2004), http://www.indystar.com/articles/3/193880-4433-102.html

Goodman, Amy.  "The Ohio Factor: Did Homeland Security and the FBI Interfere With the Vote Count? "  [Interview with Erica Solvig.]  Democracy Now! (10 November 2004), http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/11/10/1536254

"Green and Libertarian Presidential Candidates to Demand Ohio Recount. "  Green Party News Release (11 November 2004), http://www.gp.org/press/pr_11_11_04.html

Guina, Greg.  "Suspicions stir belief that presidential election was hijacked. "  Vermont Guardian (11 November 2004), http://www.vermontguardian.com/national/0904/votingfraud.shtml

Gwin, Harold.  "Democrats ' leader decries voting glitches. "  Vindy.com (2 November 2004), http://www.vindy.com/basic/news/288078640794824.php

Harris, Bev.  "The Tampering of Electronic Voting Systems on November 2nd. "  BlackBoxVoting (7 November 2004), http://www.blackboxvoting.org; Centre for Research on Globalization (8 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/HAR411A.html

Hartmann, Thom.  "The Ultimate Felony Against Democracy. "  Common Dreams News Center (4 November 2004), http://www.commondreams.org/views04/1104-38.htm

------.  "Evidence Mounts that the Vote May Have Been Hacked. "  Common Dreams News Center (6 November 2004), http://www.commondreams.org/views04/1106-30.htm.   

'Hunter '.  " Ohio Provisional Ballots, Recounts, and Fraud [UPDATED]. "  Dailykos (5 November 2004), http://www.dailykos.com/story/2004/11/4/224812/643

Klein, Rick.  "Internet buzz on vote fraud is dismissed. "  The Boston Globe (10 November 2004), . 

Kleinberg, Eliot.  "Broward machines count backward. "  Palm Beach Post (5 November 2004),

Konrad, Rachel.  "State settles electronic voting suit against Diebold for $2.6M. "  The Sacramento Bee (12 November 2004), http://www.sacbee.com/state_wire/story/11380251p-12294653c.html

Kucinich, Dennis.  "A Note on the Presidential Election in Ohio . "  Common Dreams News Center (10 November 2004), http://www.commondreams.org/views04/1110-31.htm

Kuhn, David Paul.  "Online Liberals: We Wuz Robbed. "  CBS News (10 November 2004), http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/11/10/politics/main655005.shtml

Madsen, Wayne.  "Grand Theft Election: Karl Rove 's turd droppings all over this one. "  Online Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110504Madsen/110504madsen.html; Centre for Research on Globalization (5 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/MAD411A.html

"Major bugs found in Diebold systems. "  The Washington Times (12 November 2004), http://www.washingtontimes.com/upi-breaking/20041112-112037-7263r.htm

McCarthy, John.  "Machine Error Gives Bush Thousands of Extra Ohio Votes. "  Associated Press (5 November 2004); also available at Common Dreams News Center, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04//1105-23.htm

Newberry, Stirling .  "The Voters Are Restless: Election Fraud Story circulates the internet. "  BOPNews (n.d.), http://www.bopnews.com/archives/002403.html#2403

------.  "Not 'Was It Stolen ', but 'Was it Stealable '. "  BOPNews (11 November 2004), http://www.bopnews.com/archives/002412.html

Olbermann, Keith, Richard Engel, Jim Miklaszewski.  "Did Your Vote Count? The Plot Thickens. "  Countdown, MSNBC (8 November 2004).  Complete transcript and video stream available at Centre for Research on Globalization under the title "November 2nd: Voter Fraud and Homeland Security Terror Threat 'Advisories ' in Ohio and Florida : Fraud on a massive scale is now corroborated by Network TV. "  http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/MNB411A.html

Otter, Faun.  "Vote Fraud --Exit Polls Vs Actuals. "  Scoop (4 November 2004), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0411/S00072.htm

Palast, Greg.   "Kerry won ... Here are the facts. "  TomPaine.com (4 November 2004), http://www.tompaine.com/articles/kerry_won_.php; CommonDreams.org (4 November 2004), http://www.commondreams.org/views04/1104-36.htm; Centre for Research on Globalization (4 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/PAL411B.html; Online Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110504Palast/110504palast.html.    

" Palm Beach County Logs 88,000 More Votes Than Voters. "  The Washington Dispatch (n.d.), http://www.washingtondispatch.com/spectrum.archives/000715.html

Parry, Sam.  "Bush 's 'Incredible ' Vote Tallies. "  Consortium News (9 November 2004), http://www.consortiumnews.com/2004/110904.html; Centre for Research on Globalization (9 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/PAR411B.html

Penn, Thomas.  "Can we trust the vote count anywhere? In any race? In any election? "  Online Journal (14 November 2002), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/111402Penn/111402penn.html

Peterson, Evan Augustine III, J.D.  "E-Voting Machine 'Error ' in Ohio Gives Bush Thousands of Extra Votes. "  OpEdNews.com (7 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/peterson_110704_error.htm

Pitt, William Rivers.  "Worse Than 2000: Tuesday 's Electoral Disaster. "  Truthout (8 November 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/110804A.shtml

"Presidential Votes Miscast on E-Voting Machines Across the Country. "  Kansas City infoZine (2 November 2004), http://www.infozine.com/news/stories/op/storiesView/sid/4154

Quirk, Kevin.  "Something amiss in Ohio. "  Online Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110504Quirk/110504quirk.html

Shane, Cory.  "Should America Trust the Results of the Election? "  The Washington Dispatch (2 November 2004), http://www.washingtondispatch.com/article_10500.shtml

Shepard, Scott.  "Electronic Votes Touch Off Doubts. "  Atlanta Journal-Constitution (6 December 2003); also available at Common Dreams News Center, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1206-01.htm

Solnit, David.  "Massive Vote Suppression and Corruption in Ohio. "  Centre for Research on Globalization (3 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/SOL411A.html

Solvig, Erica, and Dan Horn.  "Warren Co. defends lockdown decision; FBI denies warning officials of any special threat. "  The Cincinnati Enquirer (10 November 2004), http://www.enquirer.com/editions/2004/11/10/loc_warrenvote10.html

Thoreau, Jackson.  "Never say Die-bold: So you don 't think the Bush campaign stole this election? Think again. "  Online Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110505Thoreau/110505thoreau.html.  

------.  "How You Can Help Fight the Vote Fraud That Stole the 2004 Election. "  OpEdNews (13 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/thoreau_111304_help_fight.htm

"2004 U.S. Election controversies and irregularities. "  Wikipedia (12 November 2004),

Wade, Anthony.  "Keith Olbermann Plays Hardball, Breaks Votergate Story on National, Mainstream Media. "  OpEdNews.com (8 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/wade_110904_olbermann.htm

Weissman, Steve.  "Who Counts in Ohio? "  Truthout (11 November 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/111104A.shtml

Welsh, Ian.  "Thinking about Vote Fraud. "  BOPNews (9 November 2004), http://www.bopnews.com/archives/002357.html#2357

5. Allegations and Evidence of a Cover-Up of Electoral Fraud

Byrne, John.  "Odds of Bush gaining by 4 percent in all exit polling states 1 in 50,000; Evoting/paper variance not found to be significant. "  The Blue Lemur (8 November 2004), http://www.bluelemur.com/index.php?p=405

Cannon, Joseph.  "The empire strikes back: Data and disinformation. "  Cannonfire (12 November 2004), http://www.cannonfire.blogspot.com/2004/11/empire-strikes-back-data-and.html.  

Freemann, Steven F, PhD.  "The Unexplained Exit Poll Discrepancy. "  Buzzflash (11 November 2004), http://www.buzzflash.com/alerts/04/11/ale04090.html

Keefer, Michael.  "Footprints of Electoral Fraud: The November 2 Exit Poll Scam. "   Centre for Research on Globalization (5 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/KEE411A.html; Autonomy & Solidarity (5 November 2004), http://www.auto_sol.tao.ca.  Other observers have provided graphic confirmation from CNN 's screens of the tampering with exit poll percentages noted in this article.  See "Why Did CNN Change Their Exit Poll Data for Ohio After 1:00 a.m.? "  Buzzflash (3 November 2004), http://www.buzzflash.com/analysis/04/11/ana04025.html; and "Proof CNN is tampering with the election to cover the fraud. "  DemocraticUnderground (3 November 2004),    

Morano, Marc.  "Left Wing Claims Exit Polls Were Accurate, Bush Stole Election. "  Crosswalk.com (n.d.), http://www.crosswalk.com/news/1296007.html

Simon, Jonathan.  (Introduction by Alastair Thompson, Scoop Co-Editor.)  "47 State Exit Poll Analysis Confirms Swing Anomaly. "  Scoop (11 November 2004), http://www.opednes.com/votergate2004.htm

Wade, Anthony.  "Diversionary New Tactics, Votergate 2004. "  OpEdNews.com (9 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/bloganthonywade.htm

Zeller, Tom, Jr.  "Vote Fraud Theories, Spread by Blogs, Are Quickly Buried. "  The New York Times (12 November 2004),

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