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What's a Filipino? What's a Revolution? What's a Filipino Revolution?

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Memories from EL GALEON DE MANILA: Revolt or Revolution or Failed Attempts (Part 3)

This is the third part of a series entitled, Memories from EL GALEON DE MANILA.   The title refers to the fact that for over 300 years boats from Manila made there way not to Spain nor the USA but to Mexico, which was the capital of New Spain and where the archipelago was under the control of the New Spain Viceroy from Mexico City.  

In this 3rd part of the tale,   the Philippines gains a new taskmaster--with spoils from the Philippines heading to the USA.

Part 1

Part 2

Memories from EL GALEON DE MANILA: Revolt or Revolution or Failed Attempts (Part 3)

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Gemma Cruz Guerrero (1997) has described the "EDSA Revolution" of 1986 "as little more than coup d'etat.   This was a popular revolt that led to the expulsion of Ferdinand Marcos from the Philippines.   She notes that there has been a considerable history in the Philippines of flippancy in using the term "revolution".     We, in the USA, too, have similarly been a bit flippant with the term "revolution".   We call the American War for Independence (1774-1783) the "Revolutionary War", too.   Meanwhile, we recognize that the French Revolution and the Russian Revolutions were much more authentically revolutionary in nature than ours was--or has ever been.


Cruz has also noted that in the Philippines', there has existed a similar semantic trick i with the term "Filipino" as describing an entire people's national identity. [p. 182]

In her "La Revolucion Anticolonial y la Primera Republica",   Cruz explains that when the Spaniards first came to colonize the Philippines over 400 years ago, the children of the Spaniards who were born on the archipelago, newly named after a King of Spain, Felipe II, were called "Filipinos".   In Mexico or Latin America the term would have been "criollos" for such children of direct Spanish descent.   In contrast, "the Spanish called   the natives of the island "indios'". [p.182]   Only in the late 19th century did the "indios", "mestizos" (mix-bloods) and Chinese inhabitants of those same islands appropriate the term, "Filipino", for their own identities before the Spanish crown and as part of their growing consciousness of who they were as a more modern people or nation.

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In Cruz's opinion, in order to understand how the first Republic was founded in East Asia in 1898, it is important to understand these concepts of revolution and the rise of national Filipino identity as experienced by the various leaders of that century.

Looking back on the arrival of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi (in the 16th Century), who arrived some 50 years after Magellan had been killed in Visayas (the central region of today's Philippines), it is important to note that this first major conqueror of the Philippines on behalf of the Spanish crown only managed to conquer the regions of Visayas--i.e. where Cebu is located--and Luzon, where Manila is located. Neither Legazpi nor any other Spanish conquistadores ever conquered the entire region of the southern islands of what is considered Mindanao, which makes up the southern third of today's Philippines.  

In fact, the Sulu Kingdom of the Muslims continued to exist separate from the other Filipino islands into the era when the USA first invaded the Philippines at the start of the 20th Century.  

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KEVIN STODA-has been blessed to have either traveled in or worked in nearly 100 countries on five continents over the past two and a half decades.--He sees himself as a peace educator and have been-- a promoter of good economic and social development--making-him an enemy of my homelands humongous DEFENSE SPENDING and its focus on using weapons to try and solve global (more...)

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Why is this in the L-A-S column? Is a Philipino a... by GLloyd Rowsey on Friday, Mar 25, 2011 at 1:02:05 PM