Sci Tech

# Visualization of US lawmakers based on similarity of their voting records

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The following images show US Senators and Representatives arranged according to the similarity of their voting records in 2013 and 2014.

What's most notable is how different the Dems are from the Republicans.

Another feature apparent from the images is that in the Senate, Democrats vote more as a bloc than the Republicans. In fact, a calculation from the data shows that in the Senate, for Republicans the average distance between pairs of senators is 114.9 votes; for Dems the average distance is 38.8 votes.

In the House, there is less difference between the Republicans and the Dems, and, in fact, in the House the Republicans vote more as a bloc than do the Dems. The average distance between House Republicans is 144.8 votes; for Dems in the House, the average distance is 184.7 votes.

The averages shown in the above two paragraphs quantify numerically what's apparent visually in the images.

The data on which this analysis is based come from https://www.govtrack.us/. The analysis and graphics are by me. A handful of lawmakers with few votes are omitted.

Please realize that the two dimensional images below are projections from a high-dimensional space of data, and so there is loss of information. The images represent approximate summaries. Also realize that the x and y directions in these images have no particular meaning: the images show legislators placed in such a way as to optimize their relative distances, and this is accomplished by a stochastic relaxation algorithm (a form of multidimensional scaling).

When I covert the distance matrix into a weighted graph and visualize it with the Gephi graph visualization and analysis tool, the graphs look similar.

Note: in 2011 I made similar visualizations in 3D for Washington State Senators' votes (here) and for US Senators (here) and for US representatives (here).

Section 1: US Senators clustered by the similarity of their voting records in 2013 and 2014

Click on the image to see detail.

Notice that the Democrats are together on the upper-right, and the Republicans are spread out on the bottom-left. And notice how much more tightly clustered the Dems are: they vote as a bloc.

Section 2: US Representatives clustered by the similarity of their voting records in 2013 and 2014

Click on the image to see detail.

US Representatives clustered by the similarity of their voting records in 2013 and 2014
(image by
Donald A. Smith)   DMCA

Section 3: Each Senator shown with the other Senator most similar in voting
• Alexander (R-TN) (R-TN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Corker (R-TN))
• Ayotte (R-NH) (R-NH, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Heller (R-NV))
• Baldwin (D-WI) (D-WI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Barrasso (R-WY) (R-WY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Enzi (R-WY))
• Begich (D-AK) (D-AK, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hagan (D-NC))
• Bennet (D-CO) (D-CO, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cardin (D-MD))
• Blumenthal (D-CT) (D-CT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cardin (D-MD))
• Blunt (R-MO) (R-MO, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hoeven (R-ND))
• Boozman (R-AR) (R-AR, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Fischer (R-NE))
• Boxer (D-CA) (D-CA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hirono (D-HI))
• Brown (D-OH) (D-OH, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hirono (D-HI))
• Burr (R-NC) (R-NC, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Thune (R-SD))
• Cantwell (D-WA) (D-WA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Cardin (D-MD) (D-MD, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
• Carper (D-DE) (D-DE, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Durbin (D-IL))
• Casey (D-PA) (D-PA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Chambliss (R-GA) (R-GA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Isakson (R-GA))
• Coats (R-IN) (R-IN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Thune (R-SD))
• Coburn (R-OK) (R-OK, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Barrasso (R-WY))
• Cochran (R-MS) (R-MS, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Wicker (R-MS))
• Collins (R-ME) (R-ME, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Murkowski (R-AK))
• Coons (D-DE) (D-DE, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Corker (R-TN) (R-TN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Alexander (R-TN))
• Cornyn (R-TX) (R-TX, 482 votes, closest neighbor = McConnell (R-KY))
• Crapo (R-ID) (R-ID, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Risch (R-ID))
• Cruz (R-TX) (R-TX, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Scott (R-SC))
• Donnelly (D-IN) (D-IN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hagan (D-NC))
• Durbin (D-IL) (D-IL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Enzi (R-WY) (R-WY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Barrasso (R-WY))
• Feinstein (D-CA) (D-CA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
• Fischer (R-NE) (R-NE, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Grassley (R-IA))
• Flake (R-AZ) (R-AZ, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Corker (R-TN))
• Franken (D-MN) (D-MN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Gillibrand (D-NY) (D-NY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Graham (R-SC) (R-SC, 482 votes, closest neighbor = McCain (R-AZ))
• Grassley (R-IA) (R-IA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Fischer (R-NE))
• Hagan (D-NC) (D-NC, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Donnelly (D-IN))
• Harkin (D-IA) (D-IA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Feinstein (D-CA))
• Hatch (R-UT) (R-UT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Portman (R-OH))
• Heinrich (D-NM) (D-NM, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cardin (D-MD))
• Heitkamp (D-ND) (D-ND, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Donnelly (D-IN))
• Heller (R-NV) (R-NV, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Grassley (R-IA))
• Hirono (D-HI) (D-HI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Leahy (D-VT))
• Hoeven (R-ND) (R-ND, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Fischer (R-NE))
• Inhofe (R-OK) (R-OK, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Barrasso (R-WY))
• Isakson (R-GA) (R-GA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Chambliss (R-GA))
• Johanns (R-NE) (R-NE, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Fischer (R-NE))
• Johnson (D-SD) (D-SD, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Durbin (D-IL))
• Johnson (R-WI) (R-WI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Grassley (R-IA))
• Kaine (D-VA) (D-VA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Carper (D-DE))
• King (I-ME) (I-ME, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Kirk (R-IL) (R-IL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Ayotte (R-NH))
• Klobuchar (D-MN) (D-MN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Franken (D-MN))
• Landrieu (D-LA) (D-LA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Coons (D-DE))
• Leahy (D-VT) (D-VT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hirono (D-HI))
• Lee (R-UT) (R-UT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Enzi (R-WY))
• Levin (D-MI) (D-MI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Manchin (D-WV) (D-WV, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Donnelly (D-IN))
• McCain (R-AZ) (R-AZ, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Flake (R-AZ))
• McConnell (R-KY) (R-KY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Barrasso (R-WY))
• Menendez (D-NJ) (D-NJ, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Merkley (D-OR) (D-OR, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Wyden (D-OR))
• Mikulski (D-MD) (D-MD, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
• Moran (R-KS) (R-KS, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Roberts (R-KS))
• Murkowski (R-AK) (R-AK, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Collins (R-ME))
• Murphy (D-CT) (D-CT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Blumenthal (D-CT))
• Murray (D-WA) (D-WA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
• Nelson (D-FL) (D-FL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Paul (R-KY) (R-KY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Scott (R-SC))
• Portman (R-OH) (R-OH, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Thune (R-SD))
• Pryor (D-AR) (D-AR, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Donnelly (D-IN))
• Reed (D-RI) (D-RI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Whitehouse (D-RI))
• Reid (D-NV) (D-NV, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hirono (D-HI))
• Risch (R-ID) (R-ID, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Crapo (R-ID))
• Roberts (R-KS) (R-KS, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Risch (R-ID))
• Rockefeller (D-WV) (D-WV, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Rubio (R-FL) (R-FL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Scott (R-SC))
• Sanders (I-VT) (I-VT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hirono (D-HI))
• Schatz (D-HI) (D-HI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
• Schumer (D-NY) (D-NY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
• Scott (R-SC) (R-SC, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Barrasso (R-WY))
• Sessions (R-AL) (R-AL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Shelby (R-AL))
• Shaheen (D-NH) (D-NH, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Wyden (D-OR))
• Shelby (R-AL) (R-AL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Sessions (R-AL))
• Stabenow (D-MI) (D-MI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cardin (D-MD))
• Tester (D-MT) (D-MT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Heinrich (D-NM))
• Thune (R-SD) (R-SD, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Fischer (R-NE))
• Toomey (R-PA) (R-PA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Grassley (R-IA))
• Udall (D-CO) (D-CO, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cardin (D-MD))
• Udall (D-NM) (D-NM, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
• Vitter (R-LA) (R-LA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Scott (R-SC))
• Warner (D-VA) (D-VA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Kaine (D-VA))
• Warren (D-MA) (D-MA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Blumenthal (D-CT))
• Whitehouse (D-RI) (D-RI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Reed (D-RI))
• Wicker (R-MS) (R-MS, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hoeven (R-ND))
• Wyden (D-OR) (D-OR, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))

Section 4: Each House member shown along with the other House member most similar in voting
• Amash (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Massie)
• Amodei (R-NV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
• Bachmann (R-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Bachus (R-AL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Barber (D-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Sinema)
• Barletta (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
• Barr (R-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Black)
• Barrow (D-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Cuellar)
• Barton (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pompeo)
• Bass (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lee (CA))
• Beatty (D-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Scott (VA))
• Becerra (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
• Benishek (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
• Bentivolio (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DeSantis)
• Bera (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DelBene)
• Bilirakis (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
• Bishop (GA) (D-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Castro (TX))
• Bishop (NY) (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
• Bishop (UT) (R-UT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
• Black (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
• Blackburn (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
• Blumenauer (D-OR, 945 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Bonamici (D-OR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Tonko)
• Boustany (R-LA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
• Braley (IA) (D-IA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Loebsack)
• Bridenstine (R-OK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Brooks (AL) (R-AL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
• Brooks (IN) (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
• Broun (GA) (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Graves (GA))
• Brown (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Hanabusa)
• Brownley (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DelBene)
• Buchanan (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Mica)
• Bucshon (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brooks (IN))
• Burgess (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
• Bustos (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Loebsack)
• Butterfield (D-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Calvert (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Camp (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Miller (MI))
• Campbell (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Hunter)
• Cantor (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
• Capito (R-WV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McKinley)
• Capps (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Capuano (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McGovern)
• Carney (D-DE, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Carson (IN) (D-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Carter (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
• Cartwright (D-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Cassidy (R-LA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Miller (MI))
• Castor (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bishop (NY))
• Castro (TX) (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Takano)
• Chabot (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Hensarling)
• Chaffetz (R-UT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Chu (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
• Cicilline (D-RI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Clarke (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McDermott)
• Clay (D-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Cleaver (D-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Clay)
• Clyburn (D-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Beatty)
• Coble (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Rokita)
• Coffman (R-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
• Cohen (D-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
• Cole (R-OK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Calvert)
• Collins (GA) (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
• Collins (NY) (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
• Conaway (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
• Connolly (D-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Israel)
• Conyers (D-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
• Cook (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
• Cooper (D-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Carney)
• Costa (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Cuellar)
• Cotton (R-AR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Foxx)
• Courtney (D-CT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Larson (CT))
• Cramer (R-ND, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capito)
• Crawford (R-AR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Crenshaw (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Roby)
• Crowley (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = SÃ¡nchez, Linda T.)
• Cuellar (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Gallego)
• Culberson (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Cummings (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
• CÃ¡rdenas (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Daines (R-MT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Miller (MI))
• Davis (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Davis, Danny (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Roybal-Allard)
• Davis, Rodney (R-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
• DeFazio (D-OR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• DeGette (D-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• DeLauro (D-CT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Eshoo)
• DeSantis (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleming)
• DelBene (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brownley (CA))
• Delaney (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Dent (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Meehan)
• DesJarlais (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
• Deutch (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Diaz-Balart (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Cole)
• Dingell (D-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
• Doggett (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = O'Rourke)
• Doyle (D-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Duckworth (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
• Duffy (R-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Paulsen)
• Duncan (SC) (R-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Duncan (TN) (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Petri)
• Edwards (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
• Ellison (D-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
• Ellmers (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
• Engel (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Eshoo)
• Enyart (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brownley (CA))
• Eshoo (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Esty (D-CT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Farenthold (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
• Farr (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Fattah (D-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Fincher (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
• Fitzpatrick (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = LoBiondo)
• Fleischmann (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Black)
• Fleming (R-LA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DeSantis)
• Flores (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Holding)
• Forbes (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wittman)
• Fortenberry (R-NE, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Foster (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DelBene)
• Foxx (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
• Frankel (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Franks (AZ) (R-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schweikert)
• Frelinghuysen (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Fudge (D-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Beatty)
• Gabbard (D-HI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kuster)
• Gallego (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
• Garamendi (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Cartwright)
• Garcia (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
• Gardner (R-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Jenkins)
• Garrett (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Gerlach (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Dent)
• Gibbs (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Luetkemeyer)
• Gibson (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fitzpatrick)
• Gingrey (GA) (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Scott, Austin)
• Gohmert (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Duncan (SC))
• Goodlatte (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Gosar (R-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Salmon)
• Gowdy (R-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Granger (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
• Graves (GA) (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
• Graves (MO) (R-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
• Grayson (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
• Green, Al (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
• Green, Gene (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Green, Al)
• Griffin (AR) (R-AR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
• Griffith (VA) (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barr)
• Grijalva (D-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lee (CA))
• Grimm (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = King (NY))
• Guthrie (R-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Gutierrez (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lee (CA))
• Hahn (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Tonko)
• Hall (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wilson (SC))
• Hanabusa (D-HI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
• Hanna (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Renacci)
• Harper (R-MS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
• Harris (R-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Hartzler (R-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capito)
• Hastings (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Slaughter)
• Hastings (WA) (R-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Heck (NV) (R-NV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
• Heck (WA) (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schiff)
• Hensarling (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Herrera Beutler (R-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Graves (MO))
• Higgins (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Himes (D-CT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Hinojosa (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Eshoo)
• Holding (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
• Holt (D-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pallone)
• Honda (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schakowsky)
• Horsford (D-NV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Holt)
• Hoyer (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Israel)
• Hudson (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Holding)
• Huelskamp (R-KS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Duncan (SC))
• Huffman (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Huizenga (MI) (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DeSantis)
• Hultgren (R-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Ryan (WI))
• Hunter (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schweikert)
• Hurt (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Williams)
• Israel (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
• Issa (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
• Jackson Lee (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
• Jeffries (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Crowley)
• Jenkins (R-KS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Yoder)
• Johnson (GA) (D-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
• Johnson (OH) (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Renacci)
• Johnson, E. B. (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
• Johnson, Sam (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pompeo)
• Jones (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Massie)
• Jordan (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
• Joyce (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
• Kaptur (D-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Keating (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kennedy)
• Kelly (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Kelly (IL) (D-IL, 855 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Kennedy (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Kildee (D-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Kilmer (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bishop (NY))
• Kind (D-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
• King (IA) (R-IA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Neugebauer)
• King (NY) (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Frelinghuysen)
• Kingston (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Kirkpatrick (D-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bishop (NY))
• Kline (R-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Ryan (WI))
• Kuster (D-NH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brownley (CA))
• LaMalfa (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
• Lamborn (R-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Lance (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Paulsen)
• Langevin (D-RI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lowey)
• Lankford (R-OK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capito)
• Larsen (WA) (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Larson (CT) (D-CT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Latham (R-IA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
• Latta (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
• Lee (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McGovern)
• Levin (D-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
• Lewis (D-GA, 945 votes, closest neighbor = Cummings)
• Lipinski (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Foster)
• LoBiondo (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fitzpatrick)
• Loebsack (D-IA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DelBene)
• Lofgren (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Long (R-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
• Lowenthal (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
• Lowey (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Lucas (R-OK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
• Luetkemeyer (R-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
• Lujan Grisham (NM) (D-NM, 952 votes, closest neighbor = LujÃ¡n, Ben Ray (NM))
• LujÃ¡n, Ben Ray (NM) (D-NM, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lujan Grisham (NM))
• Lummis (R-WY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Lynch (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capuano)
• Maffei (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
• Maloney, Carolyn (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Maloney, Sean (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
• Marchant (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Conaway)
• Marino (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
• Massie (R-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Amash)
• Matheson (D-UT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barrow)
• Matsui (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• McCarthy (CA) (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kline)
• McCarthy (NY) (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Rush)
• McCaul (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
• McClintock (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• McCollum (D-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• McDermott (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schakowsky)
• McGovern (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capuano)
• McHenry (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
• McIntyre (D-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barrow)
• McKeon (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Roby)
• McKinley (R-WV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• McMorris Rodgers (R-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
• McNerney (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Meehan (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Dent)
• Meeks (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wilson (FL))
• Meng (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Davis (CA))
• Messer (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
• Mica (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Miller (MI))
• Michaud (D-ME, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Miller (FL) (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kline)
• Miller (MI) (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Mica)
• Miller, Gary (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lankford)
• Miller, George (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thompson (CA))
• Moore (D-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
• Moran (D-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Mullin (R-OK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
• Mulvaney (R-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Gowdy)
• Murphy (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
• Murphy (PA) (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
• Napolitano (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Neal (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chu)
• Negrete McLeod (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson, E. B.)
• Neugebauer (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
• Noem (R-SD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Luetkemeyer)
• Nolan (D-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bishop (NY))
• Nugent (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Holding)
• Nunes (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
• Nunnelee (R-MS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wilson (SC))
• O'Rourke (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Olson (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
• Owens (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Cuellar)
• Palazzo (R-MS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Hartzler)
• Pallone (D-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McGovern)
• Pascrell (D-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schiff)
• Pastor (AZ) (D-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Israel)
• Paulsen (R-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Foxx)
• Payne (D-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
• Pearce (R-NM, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
• Pelosi (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Davis (CA))
• Perlmutter (D-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Carney)
• Perry (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Peters (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
• Peters (MI) (D-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
• Peterson (D-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barrow)
• Petri (R-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Sensenbrenner)
• Pingree (ME) (D-ME, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
• Pittenger (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
• Pitts (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Ryan (WI))
• Pocan (D-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
• Poe (TX) (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
• Polis (D-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Pompeo (R-KS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Posey (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Mica)
• Price (GA) (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Foxx)
• Price (NC) (D-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
• Quigley (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Rahall (D-WV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
• Rangel (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Beatty)
• Reed (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
• Reichert (R-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Turner)
• Renacci (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
• Ribble (R-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
• Rice (SC) (R-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Ryan (WI))
• Richmond (D-LA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thompson (MS))
• Rigell (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wittman)
• Roby (R-AL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Roe (TN) (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barr)
• Rogers (AL) (R-AL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
• Rogers (KY) (R-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Rogers (MI) (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
• Rohrabacher (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McClintock)
• Rokita (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Rooney (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Southerland)
• Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capito)
• Roskam (R-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
• Ross (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Rothfus (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
• Roybal-Allard (D-CA, 945 votes, closest neighbor = Hahn)
• Royce (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Ryan (WI))
• Ruiz (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
• Runyan (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Frelinghuysen)
• Ruppersberger (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schiff)
• Rush (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schwartz)
• Ryan (OH) (D-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
• Ryan (WI) (R-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Salmon (R-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schweikert)
• Sanchez, Loretta (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Eshoo)
• Sanford (R-SC, 805 votes, closest neighbor = McClintock)
• Sarbanes (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schakowsky)
• Scalise (R-LA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Schakowsky (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McGovern)
• Schiff (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Schneider (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
• Schock (R-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Schwartz (D-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brown (FL))
• Schweikert (R-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Scott (VA) (D-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Scott, Austin (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
• Scott, David (D-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Beatty)
• Sensenbrenner (R-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Petri)
• Serrano (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
• Sessions (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
• Sewell (AL) (D-AL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
• Shea-Porter (D-NH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Sherman (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Shimkus (R-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Shuster (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capito)
• Simpson (R-ID, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Calvert)
• Sinema (D-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barber)
• Slaughter (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Hastings (FL))
• Smith (MO) (R-MO, 755 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
• Smith (NE) (R-NE, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
• Smith (NJ) (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wolf)
• Smith (TX) (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Williams)
• Smith (WA) (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Southerland (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
• Speier (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Stewart (R-UT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
• Stivers (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
• Stockman (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DeSantis)
• Stutzman (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Swalwell (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
• SÃ¡nchez, Linda T. (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Crowley)
• Takano (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Terry (R-NE, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
• Thompson (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Eshoo)
• Thompson (MS) (D-MS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
• Thompson (PA) (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
• Thornberry (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
• Tiberi (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Renacci)
• Tierney (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Tonko)
• Tipton (R-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
• Titus (D-NV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Tonko (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Tsongas (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kennedy)
• Turner (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
• Upton (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Walden)
• Van Hollen (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Vargas (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Takano)
• Veasey (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson, E. B.)
• Vela (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Gallego)
• VelÃ¡zquez (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
• Visclosky (D-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Israel)
• Wagner (R-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Luetkemeyer)
• Walberg (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
• Walden (R-OR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Upton)
• Walorski (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brooks (IN))
• Walz (D-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
• Wasserman Schultz (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
• Waters (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
• Watt (D-NC, 641 votes, closest neighbor = Wilson (FL))
• Waxman (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schiff)
• Weber (TX) (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleming)
• Webster (FL) (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Welch (D-VT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Wenstrup (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
• Westmoreland (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
• Whitfield (R-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Williams (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
• Wilson (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Wilson (SC) (R-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
• Wittman (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
• Wolf (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
• Womack (R-AR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Roby)
• Woodall (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Foxx)
• Yarmuth (D-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
• Yoder (R-KS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Jenkins)
• Yoho (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Neugebauer)
• Young (AK) (R-AK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
• Young (IN) (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))

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