A 2010 FBI interrogation "primer" ( PDF ), apparently a fifth version of earlier FBI manuals dealing with "Cross-cultural, Rapport-based" "intelligence-oriented interrogations in overseas environments," repeatedly draws upon advice from two CIA torture manuals, the 1963 KUBARK Counter-intelligence Manual and the 1983 Human Exploitation Resource Manual.
According to the National Security Archive, the KUBARK manual "includes a detailed section on "The Coercive Counterintelligence Interrogation of Resistant Sources,' with concrete assessments on employing "Threats and Fear,' "Pain,' and "Debility.' " Even so, the manual is on the FBI's "Recommended Reading" list for agents conducting overseas interrogations.
The 1983 Human Exploitation manual, which has been connected with atrocities by Latin American governments, drew upon both KUBARK and U.S. Army Intelligence manuals, describing the interrogator as someone ""able to manipulate the subject's environment" to create unpleasant or intolerable situations, to disrupt patterns of time, space, and sensory perception.'"
The FBI document quotes the 1983 manual twice. While not referenced by name in the body of the document, the source is noted in the footnotes. One such quote from the 1983 torture document describes "the principle of generating pressure inside the source without the application of outside force."
"This is accomplished by manipulating [the prisoner] psychologically until his resistance is sapped and his urge to yield is fortified," the Human Exploitation Resource manual states, and FBI agents are so advised. The quote is in bold in the FBI instructions and reproduced as such here.
Meanwhile, the KUBARK manual is repeatedly mentioned in the body of the FBI work. "There are two purposes of screening according to the KUBARK Manual," the "primer" states. According to the FBI, the "wise Interrogator" will follow "KUBARK Manual guidance."
According to an ACLU blog posting, the FBI document was "written by an FBI Section Chief within the counterterrorism division."
The rehabilitation of the KUBARK document began with an essay by U.S. interrogation consultant Colonel (ret.) Steven Kleinman. The essay was published in an Intelligence Science Board (ISB) December 2006 monograph, Educing Information . Kleinman noted KUBARK's "disturbing legacy," but added he felt the manual contained "the potential for lessons learned that could be derived from a highly controversial document."
The FBI "rapport-based" manual repeatedly references another ISB document. Written in 2009, Intelligence Interviewing: Teaching Papers and Case Studies , includes in its two case studies a long discussion of a case of years-long isolation of a very senior North Vietnamese military official. While the interrogator in charge, Frank Snepp, said the treatment of this official ultimately disillusioned him about what the U.S. was trying to achieve in Vietnam, the ISB authors found Snepp had been successful in establishing "some operational accord" with the prisoner.
In his essay, Kleinman seriously played down the nature of the CIA's manual, which had drawn upon years of MKULTRA research into use of drugs, sensory deprivation and the induction of fear and debility in interrogation subjects.
"Although criticized for its discussion of coercion, the KUBARK manual does not portray coercive methods as a necessary -- or even viable -- means of effectively educing information," Kleinman wrote.
But in fact the CIA manual devotes fully a fifth of its instructions to coercive interrogation techniques, or torture, including isolation, "deprivation of sensory stimuli," induction of physical weakness, use of "fear and threats," hypnosis, and "narcosis", i.e., use of drugs (including use of drugs as a placebo to fool prisoners).
Kleinman is the Director for Strategic Research for The Soufan Group, an organization named after ex-FBI agent Ali Soufan, and includes ex-FBI interrogators on its list of experts. It would seem that unwittingly Kleinman's focus on what was of use to the legal interrogator in the KUBARK manual did not stop some FBI officials from allowing certain forms of coercive interrogation, i.e., reliance on use of isolation and manipulation of human emotional needs to get information and confessions. At times this is taken to extremes that amount to torture.
Kleinman himself is on the record as opposing all coercive interrogation methods. The 2008 Senate Armed Services Committee investigation into detainee abuse described then-Col. Kleinman's efforts to stop torture occurring at a JSOC interrogation facility in Iraq. The criticism of his KUBARK essay is not meant to imply that he supports in any way the kinds of coercive techniques described therein.
[Update, 8/6/12: Furthermore, it is worth noting, and after hearing critique regarding the first version of this article from Mr. Kleinman himself, that in his essay on the CIA manual, Kleinman specifically says "long-term isolation" causes "profound emotional, psychological, and physical discomfort, and that such abuse would therefore fail to measure up to the standards for the treatment of prisoners as set forth in international accords and U.S. Federal statutes" (p. 138)]
FBI Uses Isolation to Achieve "Rapport"