(image by Jamaal M. Levine)
Every life has
events of consequence. Those happenings impact and direct the future flow of
consciousness. Sometimes, the ramifications remain beneath the surface. In
other circumstances, the thread is easy to recognize. If you are an artist,
such as Freddy Rodriguez, it
manifests in your work.
Rodriguez was born in the Dominican Republic in 1945. He came from a family of artists. His granduncle was Yoryi Morel, one of the founders of Dominican modernism. Creating art as a child, Rodriguez made masks for carnival from paper and starch. While attending a private elementary school, Rodriguez began drawing maps, where he won competitions for his efforts. By 14, he was regularly acknowledged in his geography class for his "best" achievements. One such example was his "octopus in an ocean." Even then, Rodriguez didn't want art to "imitate reality." Rather, he aspired to have the viewing be magical. He told me, "I make art to have people experience something new."
Yet there was nothing magical about living under the rule of a dictator, and the history of Rodriguez's country of birth permeates his oeuvre.
The Dominican Republic was discovered by Columbus, which led the way to waves of European imperialism that would follow. In the first decade of the 1500s, slaves were imported. By 1522, the first slave uprising in the Americas occurred. The island was subject to various power brokers. The Catholic Church sought influence among the populace. The United States occupied the country for eight years commencing in 1916. In 1930, strongman Rafael Trujillo took the reins of power. Known globally for his brutality, his mark on the island was obliterated in 1961 when he was ambushed and killed.
In the immediate post-Trujillo years, Rodriguez was part of an "improvised" political student movement for freedom in the Dominican Republic. "The kind of freedom that is denied in a dictatorship," he said. Word got to him-- through channels from those in government--that he "needed to leave." As he related, "Friends were tortured and killed. Things were very bad."
Rodriguez came to the United States in 1963 at the age of 18. Though totally alone, he completed his high school degree. A teacher gave him free passes to the Museum of Modern Art. It was an experience that he was unused to--as there were no museums in his country. He frequented the Museum of Natural History, calling it "a revelation." He sketched at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and went to galleries "religiously."
The loss of Rodriguez's mother in 1964, while he was in the United States, was compounded by the fact that he was "very close to her." He said, "I never saw her again and that changed my life." As a new legal resident of the country facing the draft in 1966, Rodriguez headed back to the Dominican Republic. He then lived briefly in Puerto Rico, where he worked for a steamship company before returning to New York City.
Discussing his early years with me, Rodriguez's narrative was laced with the realities of the challenges he faced as a person of color. "I lived here because I had no choice--but I was not treated well in the 1960s. When I came to this country, a label was put on me--and it wasn't positive."
When Rodriguez resettled in Manhattan, he enrolled at the Fashion Institute of Technology and the New School for Social Research. "At that time," Rodriguez said, "you didn't need money to be an artist." In 1969, he reconnected with artist pal Ed Taylor, who was making textiles. Rodriguez saw that it would be "great training." He said, "It was very rigorous. There were perimeters. It taught me how to work with limitations. Color theory was vital." At the New School, Rodriguez studied with Carmen Cicero, who at the time was doing geometric painting. Beyond the technicalities of art-making, they conversed about art history, literature, and the works of other artists. It was in Cicero's class that Rodriguez executed his first hard-edged painting, using the process of laying down tape.
While describing the trajectory of his work, Rodriguez segued into a commentary on the gallery scene and the "business of art." He said, "The art market is so segregated it is unbelievable. How can a Dominican enter that world?" He continued, "A lot of critics are ignorant of culture and content. Carmen Herrera was doing geometric painting in the 1940s. Criticism is from the European perspective. It's also who you are and who you know." Yet Rodriguez maintained that despite the obstacles, he was his only competition. "I compete with myself, and hope that the next one [painting] is better," he stated.
As an artist who prides himself on continual exploration, Rodriguez also pointed to the galleries and critics who had a problem with the fluidity with which he changed techniques and stylistic approaches. "I don't like to repeat myself," he emphasized. His output is prodigious, and his method of creating is rapid. As an aside to potential detractors he noted, "A person is constantly growing and changing, which is influenced by their life"unless they're one-dimensional."
Rodriguez's attraction to abstract art began with his appreciation of the discipline and primary colors of Piet Mondrian. In Mark Rothko, he connected with the emotional qualities inherent in the canvases. Rodriguez saw Frank Stella as a "kindred spirit, an artist constantly challenging himself to do new things."
With a touch of irony, Rodriguez pointed out how "those in the art world were somewhat surprised by his works that dealt purely with abstraction. They don't associate abstraction with Caribbean art." He observed wryly, "We can't think in the abstract?"
This very point was addressed in the exhibit, Our America: The Latino Presence in American Art, at the Smithsonian American Art Museum. A multi-themed presentation, Rodriguez is represented with the group of artists, "Defying Categories." He has three works from 1974 included. Each acrylic on canvas is a narrow vertical, measuring 96" x 32". They exemplify Rodrguez's use of geometry and color to animate the picture plane.
Despite barriers, Rodriguez racked up numerous solo exhibits, nationally and globally, and has been the recipient of many fellowships and awards. He received a Joan Mitchell Foundation Grant, was a Gregory Millard Fellow in Painting, and served as a New York State Council for the Arts Artist in Residence at El Museo del Barrio--an experience he reflected on with great satisfaction. Rodriguez has work owned by the Bronx Museum, the Queens Museum, el Museo del Barrio, the Newark Museum, the Smithsonian American Art Museum, and the Museo de Las Casas Reales in Santo Domingo. Corporations such as American Express and Smith Barney have included him in their collections. Recently, he was selected to be in the pilot phase of the CALL program (Creating a Living Legacy), which helps artists to properly document and archive their work and career.
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