Denmark's Secret Armies
Code-named Absalon, EJ Harder led it, an unnamed network member explaining:
"There were twelve districts, structured according to the cell principle, but not as tightly organized as during the War."
Also, there were no alleged terrorist links, yet another member said its mission was to act in case of a Soviet invasion as well as prevent leftists from gaining power, both called "a clear and present danger."
As in other countries, operations were secret. Its members were "ninety-five per cent....military, conservative, and staunchly anti-communist.
Norway's Secret Armies
After European secret armies became known in 1990, journalists asked Norway's Defense Ministry for an explanation, its spokesman, Erik Senstad, saying only that they were essential to the country's security.
Code-named Rocambole (ROC), it was run by Norway's secret service (NIS), its "philosophy....based on the lessons learned during the German occupation," to prepare for a potential future one, and like elsewhere to prevent leftists from gaining power. "Cooperation with the CIA, MI6, and NATO was intense," but not without controversy, one example being NATO ordering intelligence conducted on anti-NATO Norwegians with strong pacifist convictions.
Clearly, Norway's sovereignty was breached, enough to get Brigadier Simon, chief of NATO's Special Projects Branch, to apologize and promise to end to these type operations.
Sweden's Secret Armies
Sweden's Sakerhetspolis (SAPO), its security police, helped recruit it, working with Britain's MI6 "to learn how to use dead letter box techniques to receive and send secret messages," as well as intelligence gathering and ways to deal with emergency situations.
Swedish officials never provided details, denied any link to NATO or CIA, but the Agency's operative, Paul Garbler, explained that Sweden was a "direct participant" in the network, adding: "I'm not able to talk about it without causing the Swedes a good deal of heartburn," clearly suggesting disturbing abuses of power, possibly including the 1986 assassination of Prime Minister Olof Palme, a staunch anti-nuclear proponent, wanting Scandinavia freed from nuclear weapons.
Finland's Secret Armies
As the only Western European country invaded by the Soviet Union during the so-called Winter War (November 30, 1939 - March 13, 1940), Finland lost 20% of its forces and 16,000 square miles of territory. It's why Finns sided with the Nazis, to regain its land and prevent this happening again.
During the Cold War, Finland's border with Soviet Russia was guarded by fences, land mines, and regular patrols. Also, a secret Western-linked resistance organization existed, made up largely of retired Finnish army officers - armed, trained, CIA-funded and equipped, and ready to respond in case history repeated. "Secrecy was extremely tight," no one talking about what they did or why. Even Finland's government was kept out of the loop.
A Final Comment